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Paragon Xpress Q11 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Enamels, Fusing, Glass, Metal Clays, And Porcelain. Paragon Xpress E12 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Fusing, Metal Clays, And Porcelain. Paragon Xpress 1613 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Annealing, Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku.
Paragon Xpress E9 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Enamels, Fusing Glass, And Metal Clays.
Paragon Xpress E10 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Glass Fusing, Heat Treating, And Silver Clays.
Paragon Xpress 1613 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku.
Paragon Xpress 663 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, And Pottery.

Paragon Xpress Kilns For Annealing, Art Clay, Beads, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing, Glass, Heat Treating, Lost Wax Burnout, Silver Clays, PMC, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku.

Paragon Xpress kilns are generally used for ceramics, dolls, enamelling, annealing, casting, fusing, and slumping glass, heat treating, lost wax burnout, metal clays, porcelain, pottery, and raku, although they have other applications. They're 925°C to 1290°C kilns with digital programmers, in Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. Learn about Paragon Xpress kilns on this page.


There are seventeen square, front-opening, table-top versions: the Xpress Q11, Q11W, E9, E9W, E10, E10B, E10W, E10BW, E12, E12B, E12W, E12BW, J14, E14, E14B, E14W, and E14BW. The B versions have bead-annealing doors, the W have viewing-windows, and the BW have both.

There are two multi-sided, top-opening, floor-standing versions: the seven-sided Xpress 1313 and the larger eight-sided Xpress 1613. In the US, the Xpress 1313 is called the Xpress 66-3 and the Xpress 1613 is called the Xpress 1613-3.


Prices here are transparent: they're for UK-EU voltage, CE marked, CL CSA approved, and TUV tested kilns, and include a professional shelf kit, comprehensive instructions, UK VAT, and free continuing support from a top-tier international distributor. So you can start work straight away.

For prices, trading terms, and secure on-line shopping, use the shop link below the menu bar near the top-right of any page. The order form is on the shop page, after the price list near the bottom.

Kilns that weigh less than 30kg including the packing, such as the Q11 and E9, only need a regular parcel-service van: delivery is free within the GB-mainland. Kilns that weigh more than 30kg, such as the E10, E12, E14, J14, 1313, and 1613, need a tail-lift lorry with a hydraulic pallet trolley. For delivery charges or other locations, check the shop page.

Paragon Xpress Q11 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, And Porcelain. Paragon Xpress E9 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Enamelling, Jewellery, And Silver Clays.
Paragon Xpress Q11 Ceramics And Porcelain Kiln. Paragon Xpress E9 Jewellery And Silver Clay Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E9 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Annealing, Enamels, Jewellery, And Silver Clays. Paragon Xpress E10 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Enamelling, Jewellery, And Metal Clays.
Paragon Xpress E9 Jewellery And Enamelling Kiln. Paragon Xpress E10 Metal Clay And Heat-Treating Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E12 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Lost Wax, And Porcelain. Paragon Xpress E12B Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Annealing Beads, Jewellery, And Silver Clays.
Paragon Xpress E12 Ceramics And Glass Kiln. Paragon Xpress E12B Ceramics And Bead Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E12BW With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Annealing Beads, Enamelling, Fusing, And Silver Clays. Paragon Xpress E14 With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping Glass.
Paragon Xpress E12BW Bead, Enamelling, And Fusing Kiln. Paragon Xpress E14 Annealing And Glass Kiln.
Paragon Xpress J14 With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Casting, Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping Glass. Paragon Xpress 66-3 With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Pottery, And Raku.
Paragon Xpress J14 Annealing And Glass Kiln. Paragon Xpress 1313 Ceramics And Glass Kiln.
Paragon Xpress 1613-3 With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Paragon Xpress 1613 Ceramics And Glass Kiln. Paragon Sentry Xpress 3-Key Programmer.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Digital Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Smart-Touch Digital Controller.
Paragon Sentry 12-Key Programmer. Paragon Touch-Screen Sentinel SmartTouch Controller.

If you want to look at specific Xpress kilns and don't need to read any general introductions, compare or review the main features, or consider other kilns, click here to jump down the page. I'll start with the smallest.


Click To Jump To The Xpress Kilns.
NAMING THE PARAGON XPRESS KILNS OPTIONAL READING

Paragon Xpress Kilns For Annealing, Art Clay, Beads, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing, Glass, Heat Treating, Lost Wax Burnout, Silver Clays, PMC, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku.

Paragon doesn't use the metric system. So, when kiln names include numbers to represent approximate internal dimensions, they'll be in inches.

However, there's very little consistency: the Xpress Q11 isn't 11 inches anywhere, the Xpress E9 is the same width inside as the Xpress E10, the Xpress E14 and J14 are 13 inches wide inside, the Xpress 66-3 isn't 66 inches anywhere, and the Xpress 1613-3 is about 16 inches wide and 13 inches high inside. The 3 means they have 3-inch thick firebricks.

Xpress means they have Sentry Xpress programmers, although other kilns have the Sentry Xpress. E might have meant Enamelling, J might have meant Jewellery, and Q might have meant Quick. However, most kilns are multi-purpose within their size and temperature limits.

So rely on the descriptions here: if you buy a 500mm wide kitchen cupboard you'd expect it to be 500mm wide, not 300mm.

A GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE PARAGON XPRESS KILNS

OPTIONAL READING
Paragon Xpress Q11 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Enamels, And Porcelain. Paragon Xpress E12 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, And Glass. Paragon Xpress J14 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Annealing, Glass Work, And Lost Wax. Paragon Xpress 1313 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, And Pottery.

Paragon Xpress Kilns For Annealing, Art Clay, Beads, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing, Glass, Heat Treating, Lost Wax Burnout, Silver Clays, PMC, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku.

Paragon Xpress kilns are popular for most materials and processes, within their size and temperature limits. Every version is described in detail below so, although there's a comparative table and photos, I recommend that you set aside some time and read about them.


Paragon Xpress kilns are 925°C, 1095°C, or 1290°C kilns with ramp-hold or cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmers. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. However, for the multi-sided kilns, it's only the control boxes that are painted: not the whole kiln. Customised kilns are made to order, so can't be returned if the colour isn't exactly as in the photos.


They normally have Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmers. Features include twenty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments.

For the larger kilns, the Sentry Xpress 3-key can be upgraded to an enhanced Sentry 12-key. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. However, in my opinion, unless you need those options it's more of a preference than a useful upgrade.

Alternatively, you can choose an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.

When the programmer turns the elements off at, for example, 700°C, residual heat will continue to increase the temperature briefly. A small kiln might overshoot to 715°C before dropping back down. A software modification slows down the heating just before the target temperature, reducing any overshoot and improving the accuracy.

Digital programmers allow you to set up sequences, each one with multiple heating, holding, or cooling segments: so you can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them.

Being able to create, edit, and save your own programmes is important because, having experimented and diversified, most people fire materials, or combinations of materials, at different temperatures and for different times than are recommended.


For firebrick kilns, the elements are in dropped recessed grooves in the firebricks: if they fail, they're easy to replace. As they're exposed, UK-EU safety regulations need a safety switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened.

The firebricks have notch-joints at the corners: much stronger than the usual butt-joints or mitre-joint. For top-openers, the top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened with refractory cement.

For ceramic fibre klilns, the fast-heat elements are embedded in one-piece rigidised ceramic-fibre muffles. As they're not exposed, the kilns don't need cut-off switches so, if you open them to check on enamelling or fusing, the elements will stay on and the kilns won't lose heat quickly. And rigidised ceramic-fibre, unlike firebricks, is dust free.

The kilns have special-limit nickel-chromium K-type thermocouples. These respond quickly to changes in temperature, resist corrosion, and have an error margin of less than 0.4% instead of the typical 0.8%. However, for continual high-temperature high-precision professional use, these can be upgraded to platinum-rhodium S-types.


The US-international kilns don't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, a pro shelf kit is included in the price: one durable cordierite shelf, three or four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of glass separator. So you can start work straight away.

A pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, fusing, and heat treating as the elements turn on and off. And it isn't a £50 extra.

A kiln retailer recommended using three 50mm-high shelf posts, not four 12mm. 50mm posts waste a lot of internal space and the shelf, with your work, balanced on three posts might tip: there is a reason why chairs and tables have four legs.
If the bottom shelf is on 12mm posts, you can add a second on taller posts. However, with any arrangement of posts and shelves, make sure that work on all the shelves gets direct heat from the elements.


The floor-standing kilns include a rigid metal table with lockable casters so the kiln can be moved easily, a top-shelf cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools.
If you're familiar with kilns, you will have noticed that other makes usually come with legs but no bottom shelf or casters: although they'll sell you a table, with no bottom shelf or casters, as a £300 extra.

As a general comment, some tabletop kilns are too heavy or too large for a regular table or worktop. If you can't find a strong one locally, Paragon makes a tough steel table, 768mm x 768mm x 718mm high with lockable casters and two shelves for your accessories, materials, and tools.
Of course, if kilns come with legs or tables you don't have to use them. You could stand the kiln on a custom worktop if the height is more convenient. However, you'll need to put the kiln on 50mm thick firebricks so that air can circulate.


For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, checks, adjustments, and repairs are simple, needing little more than a PosiDriv screwdriver: watch the on-line videos using the watch-videos link or read the help pages using use the help link, both below the menu bar near the top of any page. Alternatively, we can service the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.

APPLICATIONS

OPTIONAL READING

Paragon Xpress Kilns For Annealing, Art Clay, Beads, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing, Glass, Heat Treating, Lost Wax Burnout, Silver Clays, PMC, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku.

You can use these kilns for silver clays, annealing beads and glass, bronze and copper clays, firing bone china, ceramics, earthenware, porcelain, pottery, and stoneware, china painting, crystalline gazes, applying decals, dental work, dichroic glasses, dolls, enamelling, fire polishing, glass art, fusing, moulding, sagging, and slumping glass, heat treating, knife-making, laboratory testing, lampwork, lost-wax casting, low-fire ceramics, making jewellery, melting gold and silver, forming gun and model parts, pâte de verre, raku, sintering gold and silver clays, staining glass, hardening and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools, and many other materials and processes.

The smaller kilns are more economic for jewellery-making, so you can use most popular small-scale materials such as Accent Gold, Art Clay metal clays, BullsEye glasses, dichroic glasses, enamels, GlasClay, Image Transfer Solution, Metal Clay Veneer, PMC silver clay, Prometheus bronze clay, ProCopper clay, and SilverEtch.
And there's an increasingly diverse range of other metal clays, such as Cinter, Clay Mania, Creative, Goldie, Hadar Jacobson, Metal Adventures, Meteor, Noble, and PMC Sterling.

You can make architectural parts, badges, beads, bowls, bracelets, brooches, buttons, candle holders, ceramic-art, charms, china dolls, decorations, earrings, figurines, fingerprint keepsakes, flowerpots, glass-art, glass panels, jewellery, knives, lampshades, medals, miniatures, models, mugs, necklaces, ornaments, pendants, plates, porcelain beads, pet-id tags, rings, souvenirs, stained-glass designs, tableware, thimbles, tiaras, tiles, tools, trinkets, and vases, as unique hand-crafted pieces or repeatable stock for sale.


They're ideal for your arts centre, ceramics studio, college, course venue, craft centre, engineering workshop, glass works, home, jewellery studio, medical laboratory, pottery business, research unit, school, technical facility, or university.

IS A PARAGON XPRESS KILN THE BEST CHOICE?

OPTIONAL READING
Paragon Xpress Q11 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Enamels, And Porcelain. Paragon Xpress E12 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, And Glass. Paragon Xpress J14 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Controller For Annealing, Glass Work, And Lost Wax. Paragon Xpress 1313 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, And Pottery.

Is A Paragon Xpress Kiln Going To Be The Best Long Term Choice?

Paragon Xpress multi-use kilns come in nineteen versions, with door and programmer options, and in eight colours. They're robust, practical, and versatile, are favoured by users all over the world, and are way ahead of any competitive makes in every way.

The smaller kilns are plug-in. The 1290°C Xpress Q11 is the smallest, the 1290°C E12 is the most popular, and the 1095°C E14 is the largest.

The larger kilns will need to be wired-in and are more of an investment: so think about possible futures rather than your immediate plans, and whether you want a hobby or a business. The seven-sided Xpress 1313 has a volume of 34.55 litres and the eight-sided Xpress 1613 has a volume of 49.55 litres.

Of course, depending on what you want to make, width or height might be more important than volume. Some kilns are better suited for making jugs, pots, and vases, others for blades and figurines, and others for bowls, panels, plates, and tiles, so you have to balance the internal size you'd like for the budget you've got.

Although every version is described in detail below, in ascending order of internal size, your most important choice will be the size. Then whether a square or multi-sided interior will be more practical: multi-sided are generally better for cylindrical, irregular, or round pieces. Then whether a programmer upgrade offers enough benefits to offset the slightly higher cost.

Some of the Xpress kilns are hot enough to work with ceramics and porcelain, and most other materials and processes, within their size limits. However, if you think that a hotter, larger, or more specialised kiln might be more versatile, here are some suggestions:


Bead-annealing kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 650°C, such as the BlueBird Series. However, other kilns have bead doors: the small Caldera-B and SC2B, the medium Xpress-E12B, and the larger Fusion-14B.

Glass kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 925°C. For these, look at the F Series, Fusion:CS Series, GL Series, or Pearl Series. These are not hot enough for ceramics.

Jewellery, silver clay, and enamelling kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1095°C. For these, look at the small SC Series or the medium Xpress Series. The SC series are not hot enough for ceramics.

Ceramics kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1290°C. For these, look at the small Caldera Series and FireFly Series, medium Xpress Series, or large Janus Series, PMT Series, and TNF Series. These can also be used for glass work.

Heat-treating kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1095°C or 1290°C. For these, look at the HT Series and PMT Series. Although they look similar, the HT has a bottom-hinged door and the PMT has a side-hinged door.

Knife-making kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1290°C. The KM Series are made for depth rather than width. You can choose a guillotine, drop-down, or a side-hinged door.

The W Series have a top vent so are usually used for jewellery moulds and lost-wax burnout. For lost wax casting there are optional metal grids and wax trays. The small SC Series and most of the medium Xpress Series also have top vents.


To learn more about other kilns, use the appropriate links below the menu bar near the top of the page. However, as each series has kilns of different sizes with different options there's only a selection in the table below:


VERSION DESCRIPTION MAX °C POWER W WEIGHT KG FIRING CHAMBER INTERIOR SIZE MM
Xpress Q11 1290 1440 20 firebrick 152 x 152 x 159
Xpress Q11W window 1290 1440 20 firebrick 152 x 152 x 159
Xpress E9 1095 1300 25 firebrick 216 x 229 x 114
Xpress E9W window 1095 1300 25 firebrick 216 x 229 x 114
Xpress E10 1095 1800 34 firebrick 216 x 229 x 222
Xpress E10B bead-door 1095 1800 34 firebrick 216 x 229 x 222
Xpress E10W window 1095 1800 34 firebrick 216 x 229 x 222
Xpress E10BW bead-door and window 1095 1800 34 firebrick 216 x 229 x 222
Xpress E12 1095 to 1290 2280 40 firebrick 196 x 293 x 219
Xpress E12B bead-door 1095 to 1290 2280 40 firebrick 196 x 293 x 219
Xpress E12W window 1095 to 1290 2280 40 firebrick 196 x 293 x 219
Xpress E12BW bead-door and window 1095 to 1290 2280 40 firebrick 196 x 293 x 219
Xpress J14 925 2400 50 ceramic fibre 330 x 330 x 229
Xpress E14 1095 3120 66 firebrick 330 x 343 x 222
Xpress E14B bead-door 1095 3120 66 firebrick 330 x 343 x 222
Xpress E14W window 1095 3120 66 firebrick 330 x 343 x 222
Xpress E14BW bead-door and window 1095 3120 66 firebrick 330 x 343 x 222
Xpress 1313 1260 3600 67 firebrick seven-sided 343 x 337
Xpress 1613 1290 6400 93 firebrick eight-sided 419 x 337
BlueBird two bead-doors 650 1500 22 ceramic fibre 508 x 152 x 070
Caldera top-opening 1290 1680 23 firebrick 203 x 203 x 171
F500 two punty doors 650 6850 273 firebrick 610 x 457 x 565
Fusion CS14D lid and body-opening 925 1800 71 firebrick 356 x 356 x 165
GL22ADTSD front-opening 925 11000 152 firebrick 533 x 533 x 337
Janus 1613 top-opening 1290 4800 90 firebrick eight-sided 419 x 337
Pearl 22 top-opening 925 7200 146 firebrick 559 x 559 x 330
PMT 18 front-opening 1290 6500 170 firebrick 330 x 457 x 330
SC2 front-opening 1095 1680 16 ceramic fibre 199 x 203 x 145
NAMING THE PARAGON XPRESS KILNS OPTIONAL READING

Paragon Xpress Kilns For Annealing, Art Clay, Beads, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing, Glass, Heat Treating, Lost Wax Burnout, Silver Clays, PMC, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku.

Paragon doesn't use the metric system. So, when kiln names sometimes include numbers to represent approximate internal dimensions, they'll mean inches.

However, the numbers 9, 10, 11, 12, and 66 don't represent any dimension accurately. So rely on the descriptions here.


All Paragon kilns are modified as new, or better, ideas become part of the current design. So I should clarify how things have changed.

A long time ago there were five similar kilns: the front-opening firebrick 9, 10, 11, 12, and 14, although the 11 was smaller than the 9 and the maximum temperatures varied from 1095°C, to 1290°C. The programmer was in a control box mounted on the side of the kiln. A 925°C front-opening ceramic-fibre kiln was added: the J14. Then three 1290°C top-opening firebrick kilns: the 1193, 663, and the 1613. This mix was called the Xpress series because they all had Sentry Xpress 3-Key programmers.

All the kilns on this page belong to Paragon's current Xpress series. However, other kilns were also called Xpress: for example, the Xpress KM14. And other kilns had an Xpress programmer but weren't called Xpress: for example, the Caldera and Fusion.

For the front opening kilns, the control box was removed and the programmer reassigned to the main case. The case was modified leading to a tilted easy-view programmer. But T, introduced to mean tilted, was later changed to tall, although elsewhere it sometimes means top.

To complicate everything, some Xpress kilns had a suffix A which originally meant painted but was later assumed to mean automatic: for example, the Q11A and E10A. And they're often referred to without the prefix Xpress: for example, Q11 and J14 although no one seems to know what J and Q once meant.

In 2019, the Xpress 1193 kiln was dropped. The numbers 11, as in Q11, and 66, as in Xpress 663, don't relate to anything. And I've dropped the suffix A and made a few other changes: so rely on the descriptions here.

A NOTE ABOUT FIREBRICK KILNS OPTIONAL READING

Paragon Xpress Kilns For Annealing, Art Clay, Beads, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing, Glass, Heat Treating, Lost Wax Burnout, Silver Clays, PMC, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku.

Fireplace, forge, and furnace bricks are very hard, tough, and solid. Often, they're not cemented together so, if you have a conventional fireplace at home, remove a brick and you'll notice a few hair line cracks and missing corners, chips, and flakes. Some might have cracked in half, but they still function. To retain heat, the bricks are dense and heavy.

A kiln made using these would be very heavy and need a much larger and stronger metal frame and case. They're hard to cut, so making joints and element grooves, and using element pins, is almost impossible. The kiln would be more expensive to make and transport and, once in your studio, would be hard to move: try lifting your night-storage heater. And a 500mm square kiln lid made from 24 bricks would probably collapse.


Kiln bricks look like fine sponge. They're light, fragile, and are made to insulate, not store heat. They heat and cool quickly so that the programmer can control the temperature. They can be cut, drilled, and made with joints and element grooves.

Unlike a fireplace, forge, or furnace, kilns are usually used for ramp-hold firings with multiple segments, so are continually cycling through heating and cooling. As the temperature changes, the bricks expand and contract and soon develop fine cracks. If the interior of a kiln expands by about 3mm per 500mm, then contracts, then expands ... something has to give.

Even assembly stresses or small changes in temperature can cause fine cracks during manufacture, factory testing, shipping, or first use. These are normal and won't affect the functionality. And the kiln won't fall apart because the bricks are held together within a metal frame. Replacing a whole set of bricks is pointless: the new set will probably develop a tiny crack immediately. To quote Paragon: hairline cracks can appear at any time, even in a new kiln.

We had a Paragon E12 in the studio for years. The first hairline crack appeared on day one and we ended up with about six, although it worked perfectly. We do have kiln-repair cement if a piece breaks away but you can't squeeze it into a hairline crack. Brushing it on might be a minimal cosmetic improvement but such a thin layer won't repair the brick.

THE PARAGON XPRESS Q11

CERAMICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, METAL CLAYS, AND PORCELAIN
Paragon Xpress Q11 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Glass, And Porcelain. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress Q11A For Annealing, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Melting Metals, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

The Paragon Xpress Q11 is a 1290°C, square, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. For the Paragon Xpress Q-11, the number 11 doesn't mean it's 11 inches anywhere. It's about 6 inches wide, 6 inches deep, and 6.25 inches high inside. It should have been called the E6?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 1440W, so it can use a regular mains socket. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 279mm x 381mm x 457mm high. The case has slots for air circulation and an integral stand with four rubber feet. The shipping weight, including the box, is about 20Kg.

The door metal is drilled for a central peephole-vent, but the firebrick isn't. If you want the firebrick drilling, do it yourself, or ask when you order.

The firing chamber measures 152mm x 152mm x 159mm high and heats from the back and both sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 64mm thick bricks. The kiln has an electro-mechanical relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a right-hand door hinge: factory fitted
List. a peephole-vent with a swing cover in the centre of the door: factory fitted
List. a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List. a silent long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a precision long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. lost-wax burn-out, casting, and enamelling tray
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

The Xpress Q11 is a tough little kiln, built to last. It's cone-fire and ramp-hold programmable, it heats up quickly, and, at 1290°C, it's hot enough for most materials and processes within its size limits. It's ideal for classrooms, course venues, schools, jewellery studios, and home businesses, as it's small enough to take out, use, and put away. And it's a favourite for porcelain cups, dolls, figurines, and mugs.

The firebrick interior is suited to long firings, it's a front-opener generally preferred for small pieces, and it can hold two stacked shelves for low-profile pieces or metal clays.

THE PARAGON XPRESS Q11: KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The Q11. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon Xpress Q11A.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, included in the price: one durable 127mm x 127mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. It's not a £30 extra and you can start work straight away.

The pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, and fusing as the elements turn on and off.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost, so there's an extra kit, not included in the price: one 127mm x 127mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. This kiln has room for two shelves so you can choose 12mm, 25mm, or 50mm props.

The lost-wax burnout tray for this kiln measures 140mm x 140mm x 25mm. There are two parts: a stainless steel tray and a metal mesh that fits into the tray. The melting wax drops into the tray instead of onto the floor of the kiln. The tray and mesh can also be used for supporting beads, enamel work, and fused glass.

THE PARAGON XPRESS Q11W CERAMICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, METAL CLAYS, AND PORCELAIN
Paragon Xpress Q11W Window Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Enamelling And Glass Work. Paragon Heat-Resistant Glass Viewing-Window. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress Q11W For Annealing, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window. The window allows you to look at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress. And you might find it interesting to watch what happens during a firing sequence. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the Xpress Q11.

There's always heat-loss through windows. To use the kiln at its highest temperatures for ceramics and porcelain, a small rectangle of ceramic-fibre cloth is included to tuck behind the glass. This isn't inconvenient because you don't need to look at ceramics whilst they're firing.


If you look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, it's important to wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV radiation. These are in the on-line shop.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E9

DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E9 Silver Clay Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon Xpress E9 Metal Clay Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E9 For Annealing, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, And Metal Clays.

The Paragon Xpress E9 is a 1095°C, square, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. For the Paragon Xpress E-9, the number 9 means it's about 9 inches deep inside.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 1300W, so it can use a regular mains socket. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 356mm x 457mm x 413mm high. The case has slots for air circulation and an integral stand with four rubber feet. The shipping weight, including the box, is about 25Kg.

The door metal is drilled for a central peephole-vent, but the firebrick isn't. If you want the firebrick drilling, do it yourself, or ask when you order.

The firing chamber measures 216mm x 229mm x 114mm high, and heats from the back and both sides, with the element in dropped recessed grooves in the 64mm thick bricks. The kiln has an electro-mechanical relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 6, will simplify your work with low-fire ceramics.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade from ramp-hold to cone-fire and ramp-hold: up to cone 6: factory fitted
List. a right-hand door hinge: factory fitted
List. a peephole-vent with a swing cover in the centre of the door: factory fitted
List. a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List. a silent long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a precision long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. lost-wax burn-out, casting, and enamelling tray
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

The Xpress E9 is a tough little kiln, built to last. It's cone-fire and ramp-hold programmable, it heats up quickly, and, at 1095°C, it's hot enough for most materials and processes within its size limits, except ceramics and porcelain. It's ideal for classrooms, course venues, schools, jewellery studios, and home businesses, as it's small enough to take out, use, and put away. And the window version, the E9W, is very popular for enamelling.

The firebrick interior is suited to long firings, it's a front-opener generally preferred for small pieces, and it can hold two stacked shelves for low-profile pieces or metal clays. However, the single element can't be upgraded to run at a higher temperature.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E9: KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The E9, E10, FireFly, SC2, SC2 Pro, SC3, Xpress E9, and Xpress E10. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon Xpress E9.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, included in the price: one durable 178mm x 178mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash.So it's not a £35 extra and you can start work straight away.

The pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, and fusing as the elements turn on and off.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost, so there's an extra kit, not included in the price: one 178mm x 178mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. This kiln has room for two shelves so you can choose 12mm, 25mm, or 50mm props.

The lost-wax burnout tray for this kiln measures 203mm x 203mm x 25mm. There are two parts: a stainless steel tray and a metal mesh that fits into the tray. The melting wax drops into the tray instead of onto the floor of the kiln. The tray and mesh can also be used for supporting beads, enamel work, and fused glass.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E9W DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E9W Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Enamelling, Jewellery, And Metal Clays. Paragon Heat Resistant Glass Viewing-Window. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E-9W For Low-Fire Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, And Metal Clays.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window. The window allows you to look at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress. And you might find it interesting to watch what happens during a firing sequence. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the Xpress E9.

There is always heat-loss through any window. To use the kiln at its highest temperatures for ceramics and porcelain, a small rectangle of ceramic-fibre cloth is included to tuck behind the glass. This isn't inconvenient because you won't need to look at ceramics whilst they're firing.


If you look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, it's important to wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV radiation. These are in the on-line shop.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E10

ENAMELS, FUSING GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E10 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Glass, Heat Treating, And Metal Clays. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E10A For Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

The Paragon Xpress E10 is a 1095°C, square, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. For the Paragon Xpress E-10, the number 10 doesn't mean it's 10 inches anywhere. It's about 8.5 inches wide, 9 inches deep, and 8.75 inches high inside.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 1800W, so it can use a regular mains socket. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 356mm x 457mm x 521mm high. The case has slots for air circulation and an integral stand with four rubber feet. The shipping weight, including the box, is about 34Kg.

The door metal is drilled for a central peephole-vent, but the firebrick isn't. If you want the firebrick drilling, do it yourself, or ask when you order.

The firing chamber measures 216mm x 229mm x 222mm high, and heats from the back and both sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 64mm thick bricks. The kiln has an electro-mechanical relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 6, will simplify your work with low-fire ceramics.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally blue
List. a maximum temperature upgrade from 1095°C to 1230°C: factory fitted
List. a maximum temperature upgrade from 1095°C to 1290°C: factory fitted
List. a right-hand door hinge: factory fitted
List. a peephole-vent with a swing cover in the centre of the door: factory fitted
List. a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-annealing door
List. a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List. a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List. a silent long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a precision long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. lost-wax burn-out, casting, and enamelling tray
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

The Xpress E10 is a tough little kiln, built to last. It's cone-fire and ramp-hold programmable, it heats up quickly, and, at 1095°C, it's hot enough for most materials and processes within its size limits, except ceramics and porcelain. It's ideal for classrooms, course venues, schools, jewellery studios, and home businesses, as it's small enough to take out, use, and put away. It's about 1.94 times higher than the E9.

It's fully-programmable, the firebrick interior is suited to long firings, it's a front-opener generally preferred for small pieces, and it can hold three stacked shelves.

It can be re-engineered for a higher maximum temperature, usually 1230°C or 1290°C, but will need thicker firebricks for extra insulation making the firing chamber slightly smaller.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E10: KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Kits For The Caldera, E9, E10, FireFly, SC2, SC2 Pro, SC3, Xpress E9, and Xpress E10. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon Xpress E10.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, included in the price: one durable 178mm x 178mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. It's not a £35 extra and you can start work straight away.

The pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, and fusing as the elements turn on and off.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost, so there's an extra kit, not included in the price: one 178mm x 178mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. This kiln has room for two shelves so you can choose 12mm, 25mm, or 50mm props.

The kiln is large enough to accommodate a charcoal-filled stainless steel container needed to fire some makes of bronze clay and copper clay, both described on this internet resource.

The lost-wax burnout tray for this kiln measures 203mm x 203mm x 25mm. There are two parts: a stainless steel tray and a metal mesh that fits into the tray. The melting wax drops into the tray instead of onto the floor of the kiln. The tray and mesh can also be used for supporting beads, enamel work, and fused glass.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E10B BEADS, DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E10 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Beads, Enamellimg, Glass, And Heat Treating. Paragon Bead Door. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E10AB For Annealing Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-annealing door and a separate screw-on bead-mandrel holder. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the E10.


The bead door is hinged at the top and opens outwards. Normally, glass beads on bead mandrels, or rods, are pushed through the bead door and rest on the mandrel holder, so that an annealing programme can toughen the glass.

The bead door is often used to take a quick peep at china paintings, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress, or to adjust or move pieces of work. It gives you a wider view than a window, but the kiln will heat unevenly if you keep it open for too long: although not as much as opening the main door.


If you touch hot bead mandrels, even briefly, or handle anything else hot, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. These are in the on-line shop.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E10W DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E10 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Enamellimg, Glass, And Heat Treating. Paragon Heat Resistant Glass Viewing-Window. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E10AW For Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window. The window allows you to look at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress. And you might find it interesting to watch what happens during a firing sequence. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the Xpress E10.

There is always heat-loss through any window. To use the kiln at its highest temperatures for ceramics and porcelain, a small rectangle of ceramic-fibre cloth is included to tuck behind the glass. This isn't inconvenient because you won't need to look at ceramics whilst they're firing.


If you look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, it's important to wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV radiation. These are in the on-line shop.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E10BW DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E10 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Beads, Enamellimg, Glass, And Heat Treating. Paragon Bead Door. Paragon Heat Resistant Glass Viewing-Window. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E10BW For Annealing Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

The door includes a 165mm x 64mm bead-annealing letter-box style door, a separate screw-on bead-mandrel holder, and a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the E10.


The bead-door and window version make the E10BW the most versatile of the series, combining the advantages of the E10B and the E10W described above. It's a good choice if you're buying your first kiln and you're not sure what you might want to do with it in the future.

Even if you don't use the bead door and window very often as you gain experience, they do make learning easier and you might find it interesting or reassuring to watch what happens during a firing sequence.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E12

CERAMICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, METAL CLAYS, AND PORCELAIN
Paragon Xpress E12 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Lost Wax, And Porcelain. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E12 For Annealing, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

The Paragon Xpress E12 is a 1230°C, rectangular, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. For the Paragon Xpress E-12, the number 12 doesn't mean it's 12 inches anywhere. It's about 7.7 inches wide, 11.5 inches deep inside, and 9 inches high inside.


The US kiln heats to 1095°C. The UK-EU kiln, made for Cherry Heaven, heats to 1230°C, although it can be upgraded to 1260°C or 1290°C. The upgrades need thicker firebricks for extra insulation.

The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 2200W, so it can use a regular mains socket. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 356mm x 572mm x 508mm high. The case has slots for air circulation and an integral stand with four rubber feet. There's a top vent for lost-wax casting and other processes that might release fumes. The shipping weight, including the box, is about 40Kg.

The firing chamber measures 192mm x 293mm x 209mm high, and heats from the back and both sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has an electro-mechanical relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. An optional cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel Touch Screen: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a maximum temperature upgrade from 1230°C to 1260°C: factory fitted
List. a maximum temperature upgrade from 1230°C to 1290°C: factory fitted
List. a right-hand door hinge: factory fitted
List. a peephole-vent with a swing cover in the centre of the door: factory fitted
List. a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-annealing door
List. a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List. a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the side
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted: needs 12-key
List. a USB or RS232 computer interface: factory fitted: needs 12-key
List. a silent long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a precision long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. lost-wax burn-out, casting, and enamelling tray
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves


EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

The Xpress E12 is a robust versatile kiln, built to last. It's cone-fire and ramp-hold programmable, it heats up quickly, and, at 1290°C, it's hot enough for most materials and processes within its size limits. It's ideal for classrooms, course venues, schools, jewellery studios, and home businesses, as it's small enough to take out, use, and put away. It's about 1.94 times higher than the E9.

It's large enough for 180mm bowls, plates, and tiles, a 280mm doll, or 280mm knife blades, and can hold 12 pottery mugs on two shelves. It's the most popular of the Xpress kilns.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E12: KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Kits For The E12. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon Xpress E12.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, included in the price: one durable 178mm x 279mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. It's not a £40 extra and you can start work straight away.

The pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, and fusing as the elements turn on and off.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost, so there's an extra kit, not included in the price: one 178mm x 279mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. This kiln has room for two or three shelves so you can choose 12mm, 25mm, or 50mm props.

The kiln is large enough to accommodate a charcoal-filled stainless steel container needed to fire some makes of bronze clay and copper clay, both described on this internet resource.

The lost-wax burnout tray for this kiln measures 178mm x 178mm x 25mm. There are two parts: a stainless steel tray and a metal mesh that fits into the tray. The melting wax drops into the tray instead of onto the floor of the kiln. The tray and mesh can also be used for supporting beads, enamel work, and fused glass.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E12B BEADS, CERAMICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, METAL CLAYS, AND PORCELAIN
Paragon Xpress E12B Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Beads, Enamelling, and Metal Clays. Paragon Bead Door. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E12AB For Annealing Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-annealing door and a separate screw-on bead-mandrel holder. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the E12.


The bead door is hinged at the top and opens outwards. Normally, glass beads on bead mandrels, or rods, are pushed through the bead door and rest on the mandrel holder, so that an annealing programme can toughen the glass.

The bead door is often used to take a quick peep at china paintings, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress, or to adjust or move pieces of work. It gives you a wider view than a window, but the kiln will heat unevenly if you keep it open for too long: although not as much as opening the main door.


If you touch hot bead mandrels, even briefly, or handle anything else hot, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. These are in the on-line shop.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E12W CERAMICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, METAL CLAYS, AND PORCELAIN
Paragon Xpress E12 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Enamels, Glass, Metal Clays, And Lost Wax Burnout. Paragon Heat Resistant Glass Viewing-Window. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E12W For Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window. The window allows you to look at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress. And you might find it interesting to watch what happens during a firing sequence. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the Xpress E12.

There is always heat-loss through any window. To use the kiln at its highest temperatures for ceramics and porcelain, a small rectangle of ceramic-fibre cloth is included to tuck behind the glass. This isn't inconvenient because you won't need to look at ceramics whilst they're firing.


If you look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, it's important to wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV radiation. These are in the on-line shop.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E12BW BEADS, CERAMICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, METAL CLAYS, AND PORCELAIN
Paragon Xpress E12 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Beads, Enamels, Glass, And Metal Clays. Paragon Bead Door. Paragon Heat Resistant Glass Viewing-Window. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E12AW For Annealing Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 165mm x 64mm bead-annealing letter-box style door, a separate screw-on bead-mandrel holder, and a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the E12.


The bead-door and window version make the E14BW the most versatile of the series, combining the advantages of the E12B and the E12W described above. It's a good choice if you're buying your first kiln and you're not sure what you might want to do with it in the future.

Even if you don't use the bead door and window very often as you gain experience, they do make learning easier and you might find it interesting or reassuring to watch what happens during a firing sequence.

THE PARAGON J14

METAL CLAYS, DICHROICS, ENAMELLING, ANNEALING AND FUSING GLASS, AND LOST WAX
Paragon J14 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Annealing, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Jewellery, Lost Wax Casting, And Silver Clays. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon J-14 Kiln For Art Clay, PMC, Jewellery, Annealing Beads, Dichroics, Enamels, Glass Fusing, Moulding, Sagging, And Slumping, Lost-Wax Burnout And Casting, And Metal Clays.

The Paragon J-14 is a 925°C, square, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, ceramic-fibre kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. For the Paragon Xpress J14, the number 14 doesn't mean it's 14 inches anywhere. It's about 13 inches wide, 13 inches deep inside, and 9 inches high inside. It should have been called the J13?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 2400W, so it can use a regular mains socket. The elements are embedded in rigidised ceramic fibre: a legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 457mm x 546mm x 521mm high. The case has slots for air circulation, an integral stand with four rubber feet, two lifting handles on opposite sides, and a top vent with a removable stopper for lost-wax burnout and casting and other processes that might release fumes. The door has a spring-assisted door latch and opens 180° for easy access. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 50kg.

The firing chamber measures 330mm x 330mm x 229mm high, and heats from both sides, with the elements safely embedded in the fibre. The kiln has an electro-mechanical relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.


The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally blue
List. a right-hand door hinge: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel Touch Screen: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: needs 12-key or touch: factory fitted
List. a silent long-life solid-state electronic relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. charcoal for the stainless steel container used for firing some metal clays
List. lost-wax burn-out, casting, and enamelling tray
List. ceramic-fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

The Paragon J14 is fully-programmable and will do most things for most people within its size and temperature limits. It's ideal for classes, colleges, course venues, homes, schools, workshops, and commercial jewellery studios. In the US, it's sometimes called the Xpress J14.

It's very versatile: you can anneal beads and glass, paint china, use enamels, cast, fuse, mould, sag, and slump glass, make glass bowls, plates, and vases, design stained glass panels, do lost-wax burnout and casting, create jewellery, use jewellery moulds, make 300mm square glass tiles, and fire lots of metal clay on three shelves.


The kiln has a Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Its features include up to twenty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments.

You can upgrade to an enhanced Sentry 12-key. Its features include up to thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. In my opinion, unless you need these options, it's more of a preference than a useful upgrade.

Or an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Its features are similar to those of the Sentry 12-key but include real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a preference.


Unlike the 1095°C SC2, SC2 PRO, and SC3, it's a 925°C kiln but, as it's 330mm x 330mm x 229mm high inside, it's about 4.26 times larger in volume than the SC2 and SC2 PRO. But it still only needs a regular mains socket.

The elements are embedded in rigidised ceramic-fibre: a legal safety requirement. As they're not exposed, the kiln doesn't need a door-activated cut-off switch so, if you open it to check on enamelling or fusing, the elements will stay on and the kiln won't lose heat quickly.


Although Paragon doesn't make this kiln with a bead door or a window, you can still put bead mandrels on props and shut the door completely, or open the door briefly to check on your work.


Finally, a quote from a user: This kiln is great for annealing glass, jewellery moulds, lost-wax burnout and casting, and metal clays. For a plug-in kiln, it's a good size and, like all ceramic-fibre kilns, it heats up quickly.

THE PARAGON J14: KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Kits For The CS14, E14, Fusion 14, J14, SC4, Xpress E14, And Xpress J14. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon J14.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, included in the price: one durable 305mm x 305mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash.

A pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, and fusing as the elements turn on and off. And it isn't a £45 extra.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost, so there's an extra kit, not included in the price: one 305mm x 305mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. This kiln has room for three shelves so you can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, or 75mm props.

The kiln is large enough to accommodate a charcoal-filled stainless steel container needed to fire some makes of bronze clay and copper clay, both described on this internet resource.

The lost-wax burn-out tray for this kiln measures 305mm x 305mm x 25mm. There are two parts: a stainless steel tray and a metal mesh that fits into the tray. The melting wax drops into the tray instead of onto the floor of the kiln. The mesh can also be used for supporting beads, enamel work, and fused glass.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E14

ANNEALING, DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E14 Glass Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E14 For Annealing, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamelling, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

The Paragon Xpress E14 is a 1095°C, square, plug-in, front-opening, table-top, firebrick kiln, with a ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. For the Paragon Xpress E-14, the number 14 doesn't mean it's 14 inches anywhere. It's about 13 inches wide, 13.5 inches deep, and 8.75 inches high inside.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 3120W, so it can use a regular mains socket. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 464mm x 572mm x 521mm high. The case has slots for air circulation and an integral stand with four rubber feet. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 65Kg.

The door metal is drilled for a central peephole-vent, but the firebrick isn't. If you want the firebrick drilling, do it yourself, or ask when you order.

The firing chamber measures 330mm x 343mm x 222mm high, and heats from both sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 64mm thick bricks. The kiln has an electro-mechanical relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel Touch Screen: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a right-hand door hinge: factory fitted
List. a peephole-vent with a swing cover in the centre of the door: factory fitted
List. a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-annealing door
List. a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List. a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the side
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted: needs 12-key or touch
List. a USB or RS232 computer interface: factory fitted: needs 12-key or touch
List. a silent long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a precision long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. lost-wax burn-out tray
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

And finally, my opinion.


The Paragon Xpress E14 is fully-programmable, heats up quickly, and will do most things for most people within its size and temperature limits. It's ideal for classes, colleges, course venues, homes, schools, workshops, and commercial jewellery studios. And it's the largest volume 1095°C kiln that can use a regular mains socket.

It's 330mm x 330mm x 229mm high inside so about 4.26 times larger than an SC2. You can batch-anneal, paint china figures, do enamelling, make glass figurines, bowls, panels, plates, and vases, anneal, cast, fuse, sag, and slump glass, do lost-wax casting, use jewellery moulds, and make 300mm square glass tiles. Or fire lots of metal clay at one go on four shelves.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E14: KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The CS14, E14, Fusion 14, J14, SC4, Xpress E14, And Xpress J14. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon Xpress E14.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, included in the price: one durable 305mm x 305mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, four 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. It's not a £50 extra and you can start work straight away.

The pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, and fusing as the elements turn on and off.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost, so there's an extra kit, not included in the price: one 305mm x 305mm x 15mm shelf and four posts. This kiln has room for three or four shelves so you can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, or 75mm props.

Half-sizes or other sizes might be easier to move, arrange, and stack if you want to make several pieces each with different dimensions or irregular shapes.

The kiln is large enough to accommodate a charcoal-filled stainless steel container needed to fire some makes of bronze clay and copper clay, both described on this internet resource.

The lost-wax burnout tray for this kiln measures 305mm x 305mm x 25mm. There are two parts: a stainless steel tray and a metal mesh that fits into the tray. The melting wax drops into the tray instead of onto the floor of the kiln. The tray and mesh can also be used for supporting beads, enamel work, and fused glass.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E14B ANNEALING BEADS, DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E14 Bead Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon Bead Door. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E14B For Annealing Beads, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 165mm x 64mm letter-box style bead-annealing door and a separate screw-on bead-mandrel holder. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the E14.


The bead door is hinged at the top and opens outwards. Normally, glass beads on bead mandrels, or rods, are pushed through the bead door and rest on the mandrel holder, so that an annealing programme can toughen the glass.

The bead door is often used to take a quick peep at china paintings, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress, or to adjust or move pieces of work. It gives you a wider view than a window, but the kiln will heat unevenly if you keep it open for too long: although not as much as opening the main door.


If you touch hot bead mandrels, even briefly, or handle anything else hot, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. These are in the on-line shop.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E14W ANNEALING, DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E14W Glass Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon Heat Resistant Glass Viewing-Window. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E14W For Annealing, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window. The window allows you to look at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress. And you might find it interesting to watch what happens during a firing sequence. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the Xpress E12.

There is always heat-loss through any window. To use the kiln at its highest temperatures for ceramics and porcelain, a small rectangle of ceramic-fibre cloth is included to tuck behind the glass. This isn't inconvenient because you won't need to look at ceramics whilst they're firing.


If you look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, it's important to wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV radiation. These are in the on-line shop.

THE PARAGON XPRESS E14BW ANNEALING BEADS, DICHROICS, ENAMELS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, AND METAL CLAYS
Paragon Xpress E14BW Bead And Glass Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer. Paragon Bead Door. Paragon Heat Resistant Glass Viewing-Window. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress E14BW For Annealing Beads, Ceramics, Dichroics, Enamels, Fusing Glass, Heat Treating, Metal Clays, And Porcelain.

Although not shown in the first photo, the door includes a 165mm x 64mm bead-annealing letter-box style door, a separate screw-on bead-mandrel holder, and a 75mm x 25mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window. Otherwise, the kiln is the same as the E14.


The bead-door and window version make the E14BW the most versatile of the series, combining the advantages of the E14B and the E14W described above. It's a good choice if you're buying your first kiln and you're not sure what you might want to do with it in the future.

Even if you don't use the bead door and window very often as you gain experience, they do make learning easier and you might find it interesting or reassuring to watch what happens during a firing sequence.

THE PARAGON XPRESS 1313

ANNEALING, CERAMICS, DOLLS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, PORCELAIN, POTTERY, AND RAKU
Paragon Xpress 1313 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, Raku, And Stoneware. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress 66-3 Kiln For Annealing, Casting, Ceramics, Dolls, Earthenware, Enamelling, Glass Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping, Heat Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Raku, And Stoneware.

The Paragon Xpress 1313 is a 1260°C cone 8, seven-sided, wired-in, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The Paragon Xpress 1313 is about 13.5 inches across and 13.25 inches high inside. In the US, it's called the Xpress-66-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick, although it's not 66 inches anywhere. For clarity and consistency within the Xpress series it should have been called the Xpress 1313?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 3600W, so it needs a 15A minimum wired-in power supply. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 559mm x 648mm x 711mm high. The body has two lifting handles and there are two wide-view peephole-vents in two of the sides. The lid has a handle and a fold-away lockable support. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 67Kg.

The metal table has lockable casters so the kiln can be moved easily, a cut-out in the top shelf for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The firing chamber measures 343mm x 337mm high, and heats from all sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has an electro-mechanical relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 8, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel Touch Screen: more useful features: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted: needs 12-key or touch
List. a USB or RS232 computer interface: factory fitted: needs 12-key or touch
List. a silent long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a precision long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

The Xpress 1313 is a 1260°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, pottery, raku, or glass studio. It's large enough for 300mm diameter bowls and plates and 300mm high pots and vases. At 3600W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the local voltage drops.

Although it can be upgraded to 1290°C, 3600W might not be enough to reach that temperature consistently, especially as the elements age. The Xpress 1613, described below, is a 1290°C 6400W kiln, and is 1.43 times larger inside, so probably worth the extra cost.

The kiln normally has a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer. Its features include up to twenty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.

You can upgrade to an enhanced Sentry 12-key. Features include up to thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over optional hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

Or an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features are similar to those of the Sentry 12-key but include real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a preference.

The firebrick base, which sits in a steel pan, is reversible so, if you do have a glass accident, you won't have to buy a new set of bricks.

The metal table has lockable casters so the kiln can be moved easily, a top-shelf cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.


The Xpress 1313 and TNF 1313 look similar. The Xpress 1313 is a 3600W kiln with a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer and side elements. The TNF 1313 is a 3600W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer and side elements.

THE PARAGON XPRESS 1313: KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The Xpress 1313, Xpress 66-3, and TNF 66-3.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon Xpress 1313.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, included in the price: one durable round 305mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. It's not a £40 extra and you can start work straight away.

The pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, and fusing as the elements turn on and off.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost, so there's an extra kit, not included in the price: one round 305mm x 15mm shelf and three posts. This kiln has room for two or three shelves so you can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, or 75mm props.

Half-sizes or other sizes might be easier to move, arrange, and stack if you want to make several pieces each with different dimensions or irregular shapes.

THE PARAGON XPRESS 1613

ANNEALING, CERAMICS, DOLLS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, PORCELAIN, POTTERY, AND RAKU
Paragon Xpress 1613 Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer For Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, Raku, And Stoneware. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.

The Paragon Xpress 1613-3 Kiln For Annealing, Casting, Ceramics, Dolls, Earthenware, Enamelling, Glass Fusing, Sagging, And Slumping, Heat Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Raku, And Stoneware.

The Paragon Xpress 1613 is a 1290°C cone 10, eight-sided, wired-in, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry Xpress 3-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The Paragon Xpress 1613 is about 16.5 inches across and 13.25 inches high inside. In the US, it's sometimes called the 1613-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 6400W, so it needs a 27A minimum wired-in power supply. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 648mm x 826mm x 737mm high. The body has two lifting handles and there are two wide-view peephole-vents in two of the sides. The lid has a handle and a fold-away lockable support. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 93Kg.

The metal table has lockable casters so the kiln can be moved easily, a cut-out in the top shelf for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The firing chamber measures 419mm x 337mm high, and heats from all sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. The kiln has two electro-mechanical relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentinel Touch Screen: more useful features: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted: needs 12-key or touch
List. a USB or RS232 computer interface: factory fitted: needs 12-key or touch
List. a silent long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a precision long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

The Xpress 1613 is a 1290°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, porcelain, pottery, raku, or glass studio. It's large enough for 360mm diameter bowls and plates and 300mm high pots and vases. At 6400W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the local voltage drops.

The kiln normally has a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer. Its features include up to twenty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.

You can upgrade to an enhanced Sentry 12-key. Features include up to thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over optional hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

Or an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features are similar to those of the Sentry 12-key but include real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a preference.

The firebrick base, which sits in a steel pan, is reversible so, if you do have a glass accident, you won't have to buy a new set of bricks.

The metal table has lockable casters so the kiln can be moved easily, a top-shelf cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.


The Xpress 1613, Janus 1613, and TNF 1613 look similar. The Xpress 1613 is is a 6400W kiln with a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer and side elements. The Janus 1613 is a 4800W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, top and side elements and a power-ratio feature that can vary the heat distribution in increments of 10% between the top and side elements. And the TNF 1613 is a 6400W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer and side elements.


Finally, a quote from a user: This is my fourth Paragon kiln: over 1200 firings in four years. I use crystalline glaze exclusively on a line of designer tile. This kiln is built to be worked hard: and has the power to get there fast. I use it for smaller hand cut tiles, but also as a test kiln. Paragon is the only kiln that can keep up with me: I have this bad habit of working them hard.

THE PARAGON XPRESS 1613: KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The Xpress 1613, Janus 1613, and TNF 1613.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon Xpress 1613.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, included in the price: one durable round 380mm x 15mm cordierite shelf, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. It's not a £50 extra and you can start work straight away.

The pro shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature deviations during annealing, enamelling, firing, and fusing as the elements turn on and off.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost, so there's an extra kit, not included in the price: one round 380mm x 15mm shelf and three posts. This kiln has room for three or four shelves so you can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, or 75mm props.

Half-sizes or other sizes might be easier to move, arrange, and stack if you want to make several pieces each with different dimensions or irregular shapes.

RECOMMENDED READING
General Help and FAQs For Kilns. Paragon Kiln Shelf Kit. Paragon Relay. Paragon Transformer.

Kilns, Digital Programmers, Kiln Furniture, Options, Upgrades, Firing, Kiln Logs, Accessories, Materials, Parts, Processes, Repairs, And Tools.

The remaining sections are about digital programmers, shelf kits, options, upgrades, firing, kiln logs, accessories, materials, parts, processes, repairs, and tools. Unless you're already successfully using a kiln, they're recommended reading.


Cherry Heaven has been a Paragon distributor since 2002, and commended every year for outstanding performance. Paragon kilns are good value: buy Paragons and you could save enough to treat yourself to a luxury five-star weekend break.

Anyone can buy a kiln to resell and call themselves a specialist, but a top-tier distributor understands all the kilns, options, and upgrades, will stock spares, offers free competent technical support, can help you repair your kiln, provides on-line repair videos, has a repair workshop, and can access Paragon's extensive knowledge-base.

If you need help, you can mail an experienced technician or call . Alternatively, to learn more about how your kiln works, use the help link below the menu bar near the top of the page.

THE PARAGON SENTRY XPRESS 3-KEY VERSION 4.0 AND VERSION 5.0 DIGITAL PROGRAMMERs
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 Programmer PCB. Orton-Paragon Sentry 2.0 Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Touch-Screen Sentinel SmartTouch Controller.

The Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 3-Key 4.0 and Sentry Xpress 3-Key 5.0 Digital Controllers.

Before February 2019, Paragon used three programmers: a Sentry Xpress 3-key 4.0 or a Sentry 12-key 2.0 developed by the Orton Ceramic Foundation and Paragon, or a touch-screen Sentinel SmartTouch programmer developed by Bartlett and Paragon.

In February 2019, two were modified, leading to the Sentry Xpress 3-key 5.0 and the Sentry 12-key 3.0. The modifications had little effect on the basic functionality so the 5.0 can be a direct replacement for the 4.0, and the 3.0 for the 2.0.

All three are made as ramp-hold, or cone-fire ramp-hold. Your kiln will have the appropriate programmer although, if it has a Sentry Xpress 5.0 ramp-hold, you can upgrade it to cone-fire ramp-hold. If the kiln's front panel is large enough, you can upgrade from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel SmartTouch.

Generally, programmers for annealing beads, enamelling, glass fusing, jewellery, knife-making, lampwork, and metal clays have one firing mode: ramp-hold. And programmers for ceramics, earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware have two firing modes: cone-fire and ramp-hold.


Unlike calculators, programmers aren't made 10 million at a time. Although they look like simple circuit boards, they include sophisticated feature-rich embedded software that has taken years to develop and refine.


The Paragon Sentry Xpress 3-key 5.0 programmer allows you to set up to twenty five ramp-hold firing sequences, each one with up to twenty heating, holding, or cooling segments. You can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use or over-write them.

It's easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a simple ramp-hold sequence on a 4.0 programmer. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line programmes on the Cherry Heaven TV Player. To use the player, click the controls or drag the time-line slider or volume slider to a new position.


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The programmer runs a sequence that you have set, or one that's in its memory from a previous firing. A sequence usually has a mix of ramp and hold segments, for example: it could heat to 800°C at full speed then hold for 30 minutes. When the sequence ends, the programmer beeps, and the kiln cools in it's own time.

A ramp segment of a sequence can control the rate of heating or cooling, for example: the kiln could heat up at 200°C per hour from 200°C to 800°C, which would take three hours. Or, the kiln could cool down at 100°C per hour from 600°C to 200°C, which would take four hours.

The heating rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would heat up if it was full on. The cooling rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would cool if it was turned off. At full speed the elements are on all the time. During set ramps and holds they turn on and off repeatedly to maintain the heating rate, hold temperature, or cooling rate.

THE PARAGON SENTRY 12-KEY 2.0 AND SENTRY 12-KEY 3.0 DIGITAL PROGRAMMERS
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 Programmer. Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 4.0 Programmer PCB. Orton-Paragon Sentry 2.0 Programmer. Bartlett-Paragon Touch-Screen Sentinel SmartTouch Controller.

The Orton-Paragon Sentry 12-Key 2.0 And Sentry 12-key 3.0 Digital Controllers.

Before February 2019, Paragon used three programmers: a Sentry Xpress 3-key 4.0 or a Sentry 12-key 2.0 developed by the Orton Ceramic Foundation and Paragon, or a touch-screen Sentinel SmartTouch programmer developed by Bartlett and Paragon.

In February 2019, two were modified, leading to the Sentry Xpress 3-key 5.0 and the Sentry 12-key 3.0. The modifications had little effect on the basic functionality so the 5.0 can be a direct replacement for the 4.0, and the 3.0 for the 2.0.

All three are made as ramp-hold, or cone-fire ramp-hold. Your kiln will have the appropriate programmer although, if it has a Sentry Xpress 5.0 ramp-hold, you can upgrade it to cone-fire ramp-hold. If the kiln's front panel is large enough, you can upgrade from a Sentry Xpress 3-key to a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel SmartTouch.

Generally, programmers for annealing beads, enamelling, glass fusing, jewellery, knife-making, lampwork, and metal clays have one firing mode: ramp-hold. And programmers for ceramics, earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware have two firing modes: cone-fire and ramp-hold.


Unlike calculators, programmers aren't made 10 million at a time. Although they look like simple circuit boards, they include sophisticated feature-rich embedded software that has taken years to develop and refine.


The Paragon Sentry 12-Key 3.0 12-key digital programmer allows you to set up to thirty five ramp-hold firing sequences, each one with up to twenty heating, holding, or cooling segments. You can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them. It also offers advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

It's easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a simple ramp-hold sequence. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line programmes on the Cherry Heaven TV Player. To use the player, click the controls or drag the time-line slider or volume slider to a new position.


00:00  00:00

The programmer runs a sequence that you have set, or one that's in its memory from a previous firing. A sequence usually has a mix of ramp and hold segments, for example: it could heat to 800°C at full speed then hold for 30 minutes. When the sequence ends, the programmer beeps, and the kiln cools in it's own time.

A ramp segment of a sequence can control the rate of heating or cooling, for example: the kiln could heat up at 200°C per hour from 200°C to 800°C, which would take three hours. Or, the kiln could cool down at 100°C per hour from 600°C to 200°C, which would take four hours.

The heating rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would heat up if it was full on. The cooling rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would cool if it was turned off. At full speed the elements are on all the time. During set ramps and holds they turn on and off repeatedly to maintain the heating rate, hold temperature, or cooling rate.

THE PARAGON SENTINEL SMART-TOUCH DIGITAL PROGRAMMER
Bartlett-Paragon Touch-Screen Sentinel SmartTouch Programmer.

The Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch-Screen SmartTouch Digital Controller.

The Paragon Sentinel SmartTouch touch screen digital programmer allows you to set up firing sequences, each one with up to thirty two heating, holding, or cooling segments. You can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them. It also offers advanced and time-saving features, including optional automatic control over an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface.

It's easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about using it. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line radio and television programmes on the Cherry Heaven TV Player. To use the player, click the controls or drag the time-line slider or volume slider to a new position.


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KILN FURNITURE: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION IMPORTANT
Paragon Kiln Shelf Kit. Paragon Rectangular Kiln Shelves. Paragon Round Kiln Shelves. Paragon Mixed Kiln Shelves.

Kiln Furniture: Rectangular, Round, Hexagonal, and Octagonal Shelves, And Posts.

Most kilns have a recommended furniture kit. Delivery companies have a low rate for parcels less than 30kg so, for smaller kilns weighing less than 30Kg, the kit is generally one shelf and four posts: included in the price because it fits in the box and doesn't add much to the overall weight.

You get a professional, durable, cordierite shelf with four 12mm high posts. You don't get a soft, ceramic-fibre shelf, often described as free, that will gradually break up and need replacing.

Shelf kits for rectangular or square kilns usually include four 25mm x 25mm x 12mm shelf posts, When flat, they're 12mm high: on their sides, they're 25mm. Other sizes, up to 150mm high, are available, so you can choose the shelf spacing that suits your kiln and your work. Shelves for cylindrical kilns usually have three posts.

The recommended kit is usually the simplest that works: not an expensive collection that I've put together for you. However, extra shelf kits allow you to stack your work, optimising your use of the firing chamber volume, the unit-cost of firing, and your time. And extra half-shelves or smaller shelves allow you to fire a mix of shorter and taller pieces.


For larger kilns weighing more than 30Kg, shelf kits are not included in the price because you'll probably want to choose your own mix of shelves, half-shelves, smaller shelves, and assorted-height posts.


One shelf should stay on the floor of the firing chamber all the time in case you accidentally spill or melt anything: solidified glass or metal is impossible to pick off without damaging the ceramic-fibre or firebrick.

Shelves are not meant to be an exact fit in the kiln. You need finger space all round and they mustn't scrape the kiln walls every time they're put in or taken out. Be careful lifting heavy shelves out of a top-opening kiln: if you drop them they will damage the firebricks.

Although they look tough, most ceramics break if they're dropped on a hard floor, so it's a good idea to have spare shelves, especially if your business depends on your kiln or you're running courses.


During firing sequences with heating, holding, and cooling segments, the elements turn on and off repeatedly. In a small kiln, with little residual heat, the inevitable temperature changes can make glass crack as it expands and contracts. A thick heavy shelf stores heat and, because it's resting on posts, the air circulates, helping to even out the normal temperature fluctuations.


If you're buying your first kiln, you're probably interested in one material, such as silver clay, or one process, such as enamelling. However, after a few successes, and failures, most people want to try different materials, make larger pieces, experiment with combinations, fire more at a time, and soon become interested in something else: or everything else. Some start a business or run classes.

You might want a full shelf, two half-shelves, several mixed shelves, a set of shelf posts, a bead-mandrel holder, glass separator, hot gloves, kiln wash, a knife-making rack, pyrometric cones, a tile holder, or other accessories.

Shelves are heavy, so kits ordered separately need a box and protective packing and attract an extra delivery charge. Outside the UK mainland, this might be expensive. So, if you think you'll need them, order them with your kiln, along with any other accessories, materials, parts, or tools.


For dichroics, enamelling, and glass fusing, put kiln paper on the shelf to stop the glass sticking: it's simpler and cleaner to use than glass separator. Bullseye Thinfire shelf paper, probably the most popular, ensures easy separation between your glass and the kiln shelf. One side feels slightly smoother than the other: that's the glass side.

Generally, glasswork needs radiant heat and will fuse, sag, or slump better on one shelf than between closely stacked shelves, although experienced glass artists often use several shelves successfully.

Delicate pieces can be fired on a puffed-up ceramic-fibre cloth: on a shelf. Round pieces, that could roll to one side, can be fired on a hollowed-out ceramic-fibre block. However, if the kin has elements in the bottom as with the Mini-Kiln and Prometheus Pro-7, a cloth or block will act as insulator and the kiln might overheat.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with ceramic-fibre blocks, ceramic cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

If you want to touch anything hot, or move your kiln before it's cooled off, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. And, if you want to look into a red-hot kiln, even briefly, wear glare-resistant glasses to protect your eyes from IR and UV.


If your day-to-day work depends on your kiln and down-time will be disruptive or expensive, it's a good idea to have spares: extra shelves, a selection of posts, elements, a relay, and a thermocouple.

You can learn about ceramic blocks and cloths, charcoal, dust masks, glare-resistant glasses, glass separator, heat-resistant gloves, kiln vents, kiln wash, programmers, protective glasses, USB interfaces, shelf paper, tools, and other accessories, using the accessories link below the menu bar near the top of the front page. And they're all in the on-line shop.


Shelves are checked before despatch and are wrapped protectively. But they're not guaranteed and we cannot be responsible for any later damage.

OPTIONS AND UPGRADES: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Paragon Xpress E9A Jewellery Kiln With A Sentry Xpress Programmer: Purple. Paragon Bead Door. Paragon Door Window. Paragon Solid State Relay.

Options And Upgrades.

It's important to learn about options and upgrades now as some have to be factory-fitted. The photo shows a Paragon Xpress E9A customised for a PMC silver clay studio: purple, with the maximum temperature set to 925°C so that students couldn't accidentally melt their silver.


An option is cosmetic or practical, such as a black respray, a right-hand door hinge, a peephole-vent, a bead-annealing door, a door or lid viewing window, or an EU plug.

An upgrade extends the standard specifications, such as a higher maximum temperature, a 3-key to a 12-key programmer, an electric kiln vent, a gas injection control system, an auxilliary power output, or a USB computer interface.

Not every option or upgrade applies to every kiln, so mail or call if you need help. However, if they're appropriate, they're listed in the on-line shop, so just add up the ones you want: but order them with your kiln as they're often difficult, expensive, or impossible, to implement afterwards. It might help if you make a few notes of your own as you read?


Kilns use regular single-phase 230V-240V mains so have 230V EU elements, not 120V US elements. The smaller kilns have UK 13A three-pin plugs: so they're ready to go. If you're not in the UK, use a plug adapter or cut off the UK plug and fit your own: it won't invalidate the guarantee. Alternatively, a special-order kiln can have a factory-fitted EU plug.

Most kilns can be re-engineered for 110V, 200V, 208V, or 220V, single phase or three phase, or 440V three phase. If you're interested, mail or call.


Although standard EU and US kilns have the same maximum temperature, set by the design and the programmer, some 1095°C firebrick kilns can be re-engineered to run at 1230°C, 1260°C, or 1290°C, making them versatile mixed-media kilns. However, to use 1290°C full-on hour after hour, choose an industrial or professional model.

Also, to maintain 1290°C, some upgraded kilns might need thicker firebricks, so they'll be slightly smaller inside: about 12mm on each side. Mail or call if you're interested, or need help deciding.

The UK factory-set maximum temperature is based on a reliable average voltage of 240V. If there's a regional, national, or temporary voltage drop, high-temperature kilns might take longer to reach their specified maximum or not reach it.


Some kilns are normally blue, but can be factory-painted berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. However, as they're made to order, they can't be returned if the colour isn't exactly the same as in the photo.

Changing the door hinge might be better if your kiln is in the corner of your studio or there's an obstacle that will make access difficult. Give this some thought.

Most of the medium-size top-opening kilns have a standard lift-up lid. Firebrick lids seem heavy to some people so, if you feel that a ceramic fibre lid, a hydraulic-assisted lid, or spring-assisted lid would be easier, mail or call.


If the kiln comes with a Sentry Xpress 3-Key ramp-hold programmer, you can upgrade to a Sentry Xpress 3-Key cone-fire ramp-hold programmer, usually preferred for ceramics. Cone-fire is implemented in the programmer's software and is very easy to use: just set a cone number and start the firing sequence.

Depending on the kiln, you can upgrade a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer to a Sentry 12-Key ten segment ramp-hold, or cone-fire ramp-hold, programmer, with advanced firing features and connection options. The 3-key has a 12-month guarantee and the 12-key has a 30-month guarantee.

A Sentry 12-key programmer can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, print out, and save the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface in the on-line shop.


Depending on the kiln, the 12-key programmer has a power-ratio feature: you can adjust the heat balance between the top and sides in 10% steps and control the heat distribution over larger pieces.

Kilns which only heat from the top, as opposed to the top and sides, don't have the power-ratio feature. However, the initial cost-saving has to be offset against fewer firing options.


With larger kilns, serious glass artists are always concerned about firebrick dust from the lid falling onto their work, so you could upgrade the standard firebrick lid to a factory-fitted ceramic-fibre lid with the elements threaded through pinless grooves in the fibre: or, as a luxury upgrade, with the elements completely embedded in the fibre.


Most kilns come with an electro-mechanical long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple. However, if extra long-life and reliability are vital, you can upgrade to a mercury relay which has a lifetime of several million on-off cycles. The relay can switch 30A, so if you have a kiln that needs 50A, you'll need two relays.

If extra long-life and reliability are vital, especially at temperatures above 1100°C, you can upgrade to a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple.


Some front-opening kilns are just too large and too heavy for a regular worktop, so Paragon makes a strong steel table, 768mm x 768mm x 718mm high, with two shelves for your accessories. The luxury version, with castors, is 63mm taller. If you decide to buy on old wood table, the rigidity of the legs is vital otherwise it will collapse like a parallelogram.


Some bronze and copper clays, and some metals, need to be fired in activated charcoal granules in a stainless steel container. The SC2 and SC3, the Caldera-A, and the Xpress E9A and E10A can hold a one-litre container: most other kilns can hold a three-litre but check the internal size before you buy the container. It's important that the container doesn't touch the thermocouple.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

If you want to touch anything hot or move your kiln before it's cooled off, it's important to wear heat-resistant gloves. And, if you want to look into a red-hot kiln, wear glare-resistant glasses which protect your eyes from IR and UV.


Paragon kilns, made in the US, have been re-engineered and comprehensively tested for the UK, the EU, and most other countries. They're CE Marked and comply with EU safety standards. They're guaranteed for a year, and Paragon has an international, informed, and supportive user-base, and spares and repair centres.

The UK-EU digital programmer shows degrees Celsius, not degrees Fahrenheit as in the US. If you need to convert, this is how to do it. However, if you want to work in Fahrenheit, you can make a simple change to the programmer.


For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, home checks, adjustments, and repairs are quick and easy, needing little more than a PosiDriv screwdriver, and you can watch on-line videos. Alternatively, we can repair the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.

As with a lot of heavy consumer products made in the US but sold elsewhere, Paragon's guarantee covers replacement parts, not a return to the distributor or factory, and not any labour costs. However, as an example, replacing a programmer takes just a few minutes.

AN ELECTRIC KILN VENT
Orton-Paragon VentMaster: Unassembled. Vent Outlet. Auxilliary Power Socket.

The Orton-Paragon Vent Master Kiln Vent.

Refreshing the air in a kiln minimises surface blemishes when firing clays, ensures brighter colours when firing glasses, and prevents colour contamination when firing different glazes.

A factory-fitted Paragon-Orton Vent Master removes airborn pollutants straight away and redirects them to the outside through a flexi-pipe. The kilns can be factory-readied, so the vent just needs on-site assembly.

The vent motor isn't so powerful that the heat-up time and maximum temperature are reduced, but the cooling time is, depending on the size of the kiln.


The UK-EU vent motor is rated at 230V-240V 132W, so it can use a regular mains socket. The suction cup, in the second photo, and pipe are attached to the kiln but the motor can be remote: it doesn't get hot and the fan is easy to clean.

There's always a small gap, for expansion, around any kiln door or lid, so enough new air can be drawn in to replace the old air being drawn out. However, peepholes act as straight-through cold-air inlets: so you might not want them or block them with some ceramic cloth?

The vent can be turned on and off manually. Alternatively, if the kiln has a Sentry or a Sentinel programmer, the vent can be plugged into the kiln's auxilliary power outlet and controlled by the programmer. The power outlet, in the third photo, has to be fitted during manufacture, so decide before you order.


As with Paragon kilns, Orton Vent Masters can be re-engineered for any electrical system. They conform to the demanding 1992 Uniform Mechanical Code and the UL standard, and are CE Marked for the EU. They have a two year limited warranty.

A GAS INLET FLOW METER
Paragon Gas Inlet Flow Meter.

The Paragon Gas Inlet Flow Meter.

Users interested in gas injection are usually experienced blade-makers. There are so many variables that there isn't a comprehensive set of instructions but I've put together enough to get you started if you're a novice.


During heat treating, oxygen forms a scale on the surface of knife blades, metals, and tools. To minimise this, the parts can either be wrapped in heat-treating foil or an inert gas can be injected into the furnace to displace the oxygen.

Most professional knife makers use gas injection for precise control and to save time. If you have a Sentry or a Sentinel Touch Screen programmer, a solenoid kit can automatically turn the gas on or off for each segment of the firing: just programme the controller to turn on the gas at the temperature where scale begins to form on the steel.


The factory-fitted gas injection and flow meter provided is a standard meter from Dwyer calibrated from 1 SCFH to 20 SCFH: SCFH is Standard Cubic Feet per Hour. The user is responsible for providing a source of gas at low pressure, less than 20 PSIG, to a 1/4" NPT female pipe fitting. A pressure regulator may be required to reduce the high pressure in bottled gas to a usable range. This is usually bought with the gas tank: it's not part of this Paragon option.

The Dwyer flow meter is for use on furnaces with internal volumes of 0.2 cubic feet to 27 cubic feet and, therefore, the setting of the flow meter will depend on the size of furnace or the amount of gas required to create a chemical reaction.

If the furnace is 0.2 cubic feet in volume and the flow meter is set on 1 SCFH, the atmosphere of the furnace will be changed 5 times per hour at room temperature: every 12 minutes. If, however, the furnace is over 1000F, the room temperature gas will expand to over ten times its volume when it's injected into the hot firing chamber. This equates to changing the atmosphere of a 0.2 cubic foot furnace at the rate of 50 times per hour: every 1.2 minutes.

It's up to the user to define how pure the atmosphere is required and adjust the flow rate accordingly. Typically, this will require several test samples to fine tune the atmosphere.


Furnaces aren't air tight and gas will leak out around the door, and through the firebricks and metal seams, so you need a steady flow of gas. Gas at room temperature will expand to over twenty times its volume when injected into a firing chamber at 550°C, so a low setting on the flow meter is adequate to prevent most scaling.

Depending on how you work, gas injection might reduce the life of the heating elements slightly. However, they're easy and inexpensive to replace. If your business depends on continual kiln time, buying a spare set of elements would be sensible.

Argon gas is popular for heat treating because it's inexpensive. But, it's heavier than air and breathing it in won't keep you alive. so your workshop must be well ventilated.

A USB INTERFACE WITH WINDOWS SOFTWARE
Paragon USB Interface.

The Paragon USB Interface With Windows Software.

A factory-fitted USB interface provides a USB socket on the kiln that connects a Sentry or Sentinel programmer to a Windows computer. You can monitor the firing sequences, save them, and print out the results, making it easier to keep a record of firings: successful and unsuccessful. If you prefer, you can have an RS232 interface.


The Universal Serial Bus, USB, is a simple plug-and-play digital connection between a computer and most of it's peripherals, designed to replace all the old plugs, sockets, cables, and expansion interfaces. Up to 127 fast-access devices can be set up automatically and hot-swapped without turning the computer off.

Universal means it's an internationally agreed standard. A bus is the computer's two-way connection which carries data between the processor, the drive, the memory, and the peripherals. Serial means that data is sent one bit after another, as a data stream.
As an analogy, a road bus carries passengers between work, home, and the shops. And a tee-vee serial shows the episodes one after another, in the right sequence.

FIRING CHARACTERISTICS

How Electric Kilns Work.

Generally, as soon as a programmable kiln starts its firing sequence, it begins to heat up at a rate set by the programmer. It can't heat up quicker than it would do with the elements full on all the time.

The thermocouple tells the programmer the current internal temperature and, depending on the sequence you've chosen, the programmer turns the elements on or off to control the sequence segments: the heating rate, the target temperature, the hold time, and the cooling rate. It can't cool down quicker than it would do with the kiln turned off. When the sequence is complete, the kiln beeps, and the sequence stops.


For safety, the programmer doesn't switch the full mains voltage. Instead it drives a relay, an electro-mechanical switch. The programmer uses a low voltage to activate the switch which turns the high-voltage high-current elements on or off.


When the target temperature is reached, the programmer switches the elements off. However, residual heat in the firing chamber allows the internal temperature to overshoot the target temperature briefly before starting to fall back.

This overshoot is more evident at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and in small kilns rather than large kilns. For example: 300°C will probably overshoot to 350°C whereas 800°C will probably only overshoot to 805°C before starting to fall back.

However, our Sentry Xpress programmers have a software modification that slows down the heating just before the target temperature, reducing any overshoot and improving the accuracy.

During the hold-time, with the elements still off, the temperature starts to fall. When the programmer switches the elements back on, the firing chamber will initially absorb some of the new heat before the temperature recovers. The continual switching of the elements on and off causes the internal temperature to oscillate either side of the target temperature.

This is similar to central heating. If you set it for 21°C, it probably oscillates, quite slowly, around 20°C to 22°C: and you won't notice. The accuracy will depend on where the thermostat is sited, how quickly it responds, how accurate it is, how long it takes for the radiators to heat up, and if you have doors and windows open. The temperature will probably be different in each room.

So, regardless of the thermocouple temperature, the actual temperature of your work will be slightly different, depending on its position on the kiln shelf, the vertical spacing of any stacked shelves, and its nearness to the elements, a lid, a door, a bead door, or a window. Learn to take this into account if you're working with temperature-critical materials or processes.


Remember that glass needs radiant heat and will fuse, sag, or slump better on one shelf at the bottom than between closely stacked shelves.


Kiln doors and lids are not meant to be a perfect fit otherwise, at high temperatures, there'd be no room for expansion and movement, and the door could stick and the ceramic-fibre or firebricks could crack.

All kilns smell a bit, and even produce whisps of smoke, during the first firings, just like a toaster or a fan heater. If you're worried about fumes, open a window.

Eventually, with normal use, kilns discolour slightly, inside and outside, and some firebricks might develop hairline cracks. Your kiln is a versatile, robust, red-hot tool: not an ornament.

KEEPING A KILN LOG

Keeping A Kiln Log.

Using your kiln successfully needs critical research and frequent tests, especially as things that work for your friends and teachers might not work in the same way for you. It's also very important to learn how to creatively use unexpected effects. So, keep a firing log:


Buy a durable notebook. Use a new page for every firing, and draw diagrams of the shelves, their vertical spacing, and the position of your work on the shelves. Along with your work, put a few scraps at different places on the shelves to learn how things change. Describe the material, the shape of your work, the firing cycle, and the end result. Add a few photos and sketches, and mark the page corners with coloured dots or symbols as a quick reminder of your success rating.

A kiln log is vital if you're experimenting with temperature-sensitive materials or working with metals, coloured dichroic glasses, enamels, glazes, or china paints, and a skilled artist will use the kiln log to advantage to re-create effects. It'll be particularly useful if you have to repeat a commission, or you have a long holiday before returning to your studio.


Some Paragon kilns have a Sentry 12-key or a Sentinel Touch Screen programmer which can be connected to your computer through a factory-fitted USB interface. The Control Master software allows you to control and monitor the firing, and analyse, arrange, save, and print out the data. If you want this feature, make sure you order the USB interface in the on-line shop.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO CLAYS

Natural Clay.

What Is Clay?

Clays are formed naturally over millions of years as rocks break up into minute particles. They consist of hydrous aluminium silicates and other compounds such as feldspar, iron oxides, mica, and quartz. Clays are collectively referred to as ceramics.

Clays are often divided into three main categories: earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware. Generally, they needs to be fired for several hours, although the exact chemical composition affects the firing temperatures and times, and the clays' colour, porosity, shrinkage, and strength.

All clays are created to mature at specific temperatures, and any variance can lead to unsatisfactory results in ceramic durability or color. If fired too high, clay can deform or even melt; if fired too low, your pieces will be dry, rough, and potentially unsolidified.

Historically, low-fire has been the most commonly used firing range due to limitations in kiln technology. Modern kilns are now capable of much more complex, high-temperature processes, but low-fire range continues to be popular because it allows ceramic artists to use a variety of colourants that either burn off or become unstable at higher temperatures.

The maximum cone rating of a stoneware or porcelain clay is the temperature at which it vitrifies. This is the hardening, tightening and finally the partial glassification of the clay. Vitrification results from fusions or melting of the various components of the clay. The strength of fired clay is increased by the formation of new crystalline growth within the clay body, particularly the growth of mullite crystals. Mullite is an aluminum silicate characterized by a long needle-like crystal. These lace the structure together, giving it cohesion and strength.

When clay vitrifies it gets very strong. This is especially important for dinnerware where pieces are exposed to a lot of abuse. Vitrification also makes the clay's porosity low.

EARTHENWARE, PORCELAIN, AND STONEWARE

Earthenware Flower Pot.

What Are Earthenware, Porcelain, And Stoneware?

Earthenware is normally beige, red, or white. It has the lowest firing temperature of the three, usually lower than 1150°C. It's slightly porous, and stains and chips easily, so it's often glazed to protect the surface. Its porosity means it's good for making terracotta planters and oven steamers, but not good for jugs or vases.


Porcelain is composed of kaolin, or china clay. Kaolin doesn't melt until 1800°C, so other compounds are usually added so it can be fired between 1250°C and 1400°C. For example, bone china is made by adding bone ash to the clay. It's known for its whiteness, hardness, smoothness, durability, and translucency. When tapped, it makes a distinctive ping: or ming.

Named after a hill in China from which it was mined for centuries, kaolin is the purest form of clay and is the foundation of all porcelain clay bodies. Though pure kaolin clays can be fired, often they are mixed with other clays to increase both workability and lower the firing temperature, so if using a kaolin-based clay body, be sure to note how pure your material is, as this will change the required temperature.

As a clay body, porcelain is known for its hardness, extremely tight density, whiteness, and translucence in thin-walled pieces. Another difficulty with porcelain bodies is that they are very prone to warping during drying in the kiln

When fired, porcelain becomes a hard, vitrified, non-absorbent clay body, very similar to high-fire stoneware. It also develops a body-glaze layer formed between the clay body and the glaze. The absence of any iron, alkalies, or alkaline earths in the molecular structure of kaolin not only dictate its high-fire requirements, but are also responsible for its most identifiable characteristic: its white color.


Stoneware is normally beige, grey, or red-brown. It's usually fired between 1150°C and 1300°C. It's hard, durable, and resists thermal shock. Glazes bond well, so it can be made waterproof.


Stoneware is a plastic clay, often grey when moist. Getting its name from the dense, rock-like nature of the clay body when fired, stoneware is typically combined with other clays to modify it, such as ball clays which might be added for plasticity. It is important to note that stoneware is divided into two types: mid-fire and high-fire.

Like low-fire bodies, mid-range stoneware is relatively soft and porous and has a clearly separate glaze layer after firing. However, a mid-range firing results in increased durability of the ware as well. When fired, stoneware ranges in color from light grey to buff, to medium grey and brown.

Mid-range glazes typically mature between Cone 4 and Cone 6, and most commercial underglazes have a maximum temperature of Cone 6. These glazes are more durable, still offer a fairly extensive color range, and though not quite as harsh as low-fire glazes, can still be quite bright.

BISQUE

Bisque.

What Is Bisque?

Bisque is clay which has been fired once, without a glaze, to a temperature just before vitrification. Firing changes the clay into ceramic material, without fully fusing it. A second, slower, firing melts the glaze and fuses it to the clay body.

BONE CHINA

Royal Victoria Bone China Cup And Saucer. Wedgewood White Dinner Set. Rose Bouquet Dessert Plates. Royal Albert Bone China Tea Set.

What Is Bone China?

Bone china is a type of porcelain composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, and kaolin. It's the strongest of the porcelain or china ceramics, having very high mechanical and physical strength and chip resistance, and is known for its high levels of whiteness and translucency. Its high strength allows it to be produced in thinner cross-sections than other types of porcelain.

From its initial development and up to the latter part of the 20th century, bone china was almost exclusively English, with production being effectively localised in Stoke-on-Trent. Most major English firms made or still make it, including Fortnum & Mason, Mintons, Coalport, Spode, Royal Crown Derby, Royal Doulton, Wedgwood, and Worcester.

In the UK, references to china or porcelain can refer to bone china, and English Porcelain has been used as a term for it, both in the UK and around the world.

POLYMER CLAY

Polymer Clay Flowers By Olga Zhukova. Polymer Clay Key Rings. Polymer Clay Beads By LiasonWithAlison. Polymer Clay Necklace By Facet Jewellery.

What Is Polymer Clay?

Polymer clay is a man-made material: tiny particles of polyvinyl chloride mixed with plasticisers and pigments. When it's baked, at around 125°C, the particles fuse and the clay hardens.

RAKU

Raku By Lori Duncan. Raku By Brian Seckinger. Raku By Greenwich Community College. Raku By Soley Ceramics.

What Is Raku?

Raku was originally a Japanese technique, but it's now become an internationally popular way to make decorative ware, with each piece having a unique blend of colours.

A bisque piece is fired to about 950°C, then glazed. It's removed from the kiln when red-hot, and put straight into a container of combustible material.

The flames, reducing atmosphere, and mix of chemicals stain the clay. When the piece is removed and quenched in cold water, interesting colours and shades remain: often unpredictable.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO GLASS AND GEMS

Obsidian. Fish. Curved Glass by Infabbrica. Lauscha By Carrie Fertig.

What Is Glass?

The main component of glass is silicon dioxide, often called silica: found naturally and plentifully as sand. When it melts, at around 1700°C, it's like syrup on a cold day. When it cools, it forms a rigid brittle glass called quartz glass.

To lower the melting point, and reduce the cost of melting, chemicals are added: typically sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. Other chemicals, and different heating and cooling processes, produce a range of colours and mechanical properties.

Chemically, glass is defined as an amorphous solid but, as it's heated, it becomes softer allowing it to be blown, cast, coated, decorated, engraved, heat-treated, moulded, poured, pressed, sagged, and slumped.

A form of glass occurs naturally within the mouth of a volcano when the intense heat of an eruption melts sand to form Obsidian, a hard black-to-brown glassy type of stone, shown in the photo. Although it was used decoratively, when it fractures it has very sharp edges, many times sharper than a steel knife-edge, so was also used for tools and weapons: and the pitiful rituals of circumcision and female genital mutilation.

ANNEALING
Annealed Beads Made Into A Necklace.

What Is Annealing?

During annealing, fabrication stresses are relieved as the molecules cool and arrange themselves into a regular stable matrix. Successful annealing is the key to creating glasswork that will remain attractive and durable. It's quite a long process, so a kiln with an automatic comprehensive programmer is essential.

FREE BEAD ANNEALING GUIDE

A Bead Annealing Guide.

You can download, and print, a Bead Annealing Guide. Paragon created it in 2013 so it's only a guide, not a contemporary definitive document. Click here. It's a pdf file, but your device should already have a pdf viewer.

CUBIC ZIRCONIA
Cubic Zirconia.

What Are Cubic Zirconia.

Cubic Zirconia is the most popular substitute for a diamond because they look almost dentical. Cubic Zirconia or CZ, is made from zirconium dioxide which comes closer than any other gem to matching the characteristics of a diamond. It's not quite as hard as diamond and is slightly less sparkly but displays more prismatic fire with more colour sparkles within the gem, especially if metal oxides are added during the production process.

Caring for CZ is important because they are more brittle than diamonds and susceptible to wear and tear such as chipping and scratches over time.

DIAMONDS
Diamond.

What Are Diamonds?

Diamonds are not a form of glass: they're naturally occurring gems composed of carbon atoms arranged in a very regular pattern.

Between 1 billion to 3.3 billion years ago, simple carbon containing trace minerals was transformed into diamonds by heat and pressure at depths of over 100 miles below the earth’s surface. We can’t mine down far enough to reach the earth’s mantle but fortunately volcanic eruptions brought the diamonds closer to the surface. They're extremely hard and until recently were regarded as the world's hardest natural material.

Although diamonds are extremely expensive, their price is governed by carat, cut, colour, and clarity. It’s very rare to find a diamond that doesn’t contain flaws: however the impurities, and internal refraction and dispersion of light, give diamonds their brilliance.


Synthetic diamonds are manufactured and are identical in hardness, dispersion, gravity, refraction and chemical composition to the highest quality mined diamonds available. Whereas a one-carat top quality diamond would cost thousands of pounds to buy, the same quality man-made diamond could be made for less than £5.

This will obviously have a huge impact on the diamond industry over the next few years as when comparing a cultured and mined diamond side by side they are virtually undistinguishable. A bit like pearls, they can be grown from a single crystal using chemical vapor deposition.

DICHROIC GLASS
Dichroic Glass.

What Are Dichroic Glasses.

Dichroic glass has two different colours: a transmitted colour and a reflective colour, both of which change depending on the angle of view. For example blue-red will be blue in transmission and red in reflection.

During manufacture, quartz and metal oxides are vapourised onto the surface of the glass using a vacuum deposition process, forming a multi-layer crystal structure.

ENAMELLING
Enamelled Jewellery.

What Is Enamelling?

Enamelling involves applying a glass paste to metal and then heating it to fuse it to the surface. The finish of the enamel can be translucent or opaque depending on the temperature used to melt the glass. Higher temperatures result in a more transparent and durable enamel whilst lower temperatures give a more opaque and fragile surface. Dyes and pigments can be included to produce any colour.

The Paragon SC2 is ideal for enamelling, although other kilns are fine. So click the sc2-sc3:jewellery link below the menu bar near the top of the page. The SC-2W and SC-3W doors include a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in the centre of the door, allowing you to take a quick peep at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress

FIRE POLISHING
Fire Polished Glass.

What Is Fire Polishing?

To fire polish glass, return the items to the kiln and melt them just enough to give a smooth polished appearance. It needs a temperature of around 700°C, and is often used to round the edges of glass after fusing.

Fire polishing already-slumped items is more difficult because the polishing temperature is close to the slumping temperature and it can distort the appearance of the piece. So it generally works best for flat items, rather than slumped ones. It has the slight limitation that the part of the item that touches the kiln shelf won't polish.

FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Fused Glass.

What Is Glass Fusing?

If two or more pieces of glass in contact are heated, they begin to soften and fuse together. With careful heating and cooling, the separate pieces of glass become one.

If glass is put on a mould and heated, it begins to soften and collapse, or sag, onto the mould: a common technique for making bowls and plates.

Sagging and slumping are often thought of as being the same. Correctly: during sagging, heated glass, supported at its edges, sags down in the middle to conform to a mould; during slumping, heated glass, supported at its middle, slumps down at its edges to conform to a mould.

LAMPWORK AND BEADS
Beads.

What Is Lampwork?

Lamp-working is the traditional name for glasswork that uses a flame to melt glass rods and tubes. As the glass softens, it's shaped by turning and using tools.

Early lampworkers used an oil-lamp, and blew air into the flame through a pipe. Later, propane, natural gas, or butane torches replaced the lamp, although kilns are now increasingly popular, particularly for annealing.

Beads are usually made on steel rods, or mandrels. When the beads are finished, the rods are removed leaving holes for threading the beads. Cold working techniques can be used, such as etching, faceting, polishing, and sandblasting.

LOST-WAX BURNOUT
Paragon W13 Lost Wax Casting Kiln With A Sentry Programmer.

What Is Lost Wax Casting?

Lost-wax burnout starts with making a wax shape and then making a mould of the shape. When the mould is heated in a kiln, the wax melts out through channels, usually over a burnout mesh and into a tray. The shape is then cast in glass or metal from the mould.

It's important to prevent wax or carbon sticking to the elements, so burnout kilns have a top vent to release fumes. Carbon build-up inside a kiln could conduct electricity and would eventually cause the elements to fail.

Paragon make kilns designed for this: the W series. So click the w:lost-wax link under the menu bar near the top of the page. They all have top vents and optional wax trays.

MOISSANITE
Moissanite.

What Is Moissanite.

Moissanite is another diamond substitute which is a rare mineral found naturally in small quantities, although Moissanite for jewellery is artificially made. It’s made from Silicon Carbide which means it’s able to withstand high temperatures and is very hard.

Moissanite is noticeably much sparklier and displays more prismatic fire than a diamond which is noticeable even to an untrained observer. Moissanite does have inclusions like a diamond and it may also have a greenish tinge to its colour.

PÂTE DE VERRE
Pâte De Verre.

What Is Pâte De Verre?

Pâte de verre involves making a glass paste, applying it to a mould, firing it, and removing the piece from the mould. The glass paste is usually made from glass powder, a binder such as gum arabic, distilled water, and colouring agents or enamels. It allows precise placing of colours in the mould, whereas other techniques often result in the glass straying from its intended position.

I think, currently, Daum is the only large commercial crystal manufacturer using the pâte de verre process for art glass and crystal sculptures.

SLUMPING BOTTLES
Slumped Bottle.

What Is Glass Slumping?

This a simple technique but it requires good ideas. A bottle, such as those used for wine, beer, cola, or champagne, is softened in a kiln so that it begins to flatten out or conforms to a mould. There are too many moulds to stock here but there are lots available on line. Or make your own from clay.

The bottles need to be clean and dry, with all paper labels and tops removed. Put them in your kiln on a shelf, either with shelf paper or kiln wash to prevent the glass sticking to the shelf.

Paragon makes a kiln designed for this: the Trio. So click the trio link below the menu bar near the top of the page. It's wide enough for most bottles but can still use a regular socket.

STAINED GLASS
Stained Glass.

What Is Stained Glass?

Stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, traditionally held together by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design.

The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln.

It requires artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the Late Middle Ages.

SWAROVSKI CRYSTAL
Swarovski Crystal.

What Is Swarovski Crystal?

Swarovski Crystal isn’t a gemstone or even a crystal: it’s a form of glass made at high temperatures by melting silicon oxide powders with lead to form what is known as lead crystal. The exact process is patented by Swarovski but it has approximately 32% lead content to increase the crystals refraction index to resemble that of a diamond. To produce a diamond like effect the crystal glass is precision cut and then polished again by a Swarovski patented process that gives the crystal a high quality finish.

The crystals are often further enhanced by coating the glass with an Aurora Borealis or AB coating that gives the surface a rainbow like appearance to simulate dispersion from a diamond. Swarovski crystal is not as hard as diamond so its susceptible to scratches and chipping from wear and tear, but it’s harder than standard glass.

TACK FUSING
Tack Fused Glass.

What Is Tack Fusing?

Tack fusing is the joining together of glass, with as little change to the shape of the pieces as possible. Tack fusing may be used either decoratively, or to assemble a large piece of glass from laminations.

Where tack fusing is used to apply small decorative details to a larger piece, you might want to partially melt the small pieces so that they change shape, usually becoming more spherical under the influence of surface tension, but without changing the shape of the carrier piece. This can be done by using an increased temperature, but only briefly. The carrier piece has a larger thermal mass, so heats up more slowly than the small decorations.

VITRIGRAPH WORK
Glass Stringers.

What Is Vitrigraph?

The vitrigraph process usually uses a kiln to make glass stringers. The bottom of the kiln is removed and set aside. The kiln body is put on a thick ceramic square with a central hole.

A crucible of glass is put inside, and the whole combination lifted well away from the floor to allow moulten glass to fall through a hole in the crucible and form long stringers. Ceramic squares are in the on-line shop.

Paragon make a kiln designed for this: the Caldera. So click the caldera:ceramics link below the menu bar near the top of the page. The bottom is a separate part and can be unclipped.

WARM GLASS
Warm Glass Flower Bowl.

What Is Warm Glass?

The term warm glass refers to fusing, slumping, and other glass processes which take place at temperatures between about 600°C to 925°C. Although that doesn't sound warm, it is when you compare it to glassblower's working temperatures, which often exceed 1100°C. Warm glass is sometimes called kiln-formed glass.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO METAL CLAYS
Art Clay Silver Clay. Acrylic Tools. Clay Shapers. Hand Tools.

What Is A Metal Clay?

Metal Clays are clay-like materials made of fine metal powders and water-soluble organic binders. Out of the packet they feel like modelling clay, so can be shaped using anything appropriate. If you don't like what you've made, you can roll it up and start again. Any scraps can be wrapped up in cling-film or foil and re-used, so there's almost no waste.

When you're happy with your work, it's dried so that the moisture can evaporate. At this stage it feels like a plaster, so you can still refine the shape: or even add more clay.

As it's fired, the binders vapourise, releasing small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid metal: real metal, not something that just looks like metal. The firing temperature isn't high enough to melt the metal otherwise your work would liquify and lose it's shape.


Although Art Clay and PMC silver clays were first to market, there's now an increasingly diverse range of metal clays, such as Cinter, Clay Mania, Creative, Goldie, Hadar Jacobson, Metal Adventures, Meteor, Noble, PMC Sterling, and Prometheus.

I sometimes get asked if there's a platinum metal clay: there is, but it's an industrial product. Platinum melts at 1772°C, so a platimum clay would probably need to fire at around 1600°C: beyond the maximum temperature of conventional kilns.


All our tools have been chosen for their engineering excellence and clean functionality, to help you manage a creative and efficient work environment. And you'll enjoy using good tools rather than continually improvising. To learn more, use the accessories-tools link below the menu bar near the top of the page.

SILVER CLAY
Art Clay Silver Pendant. Art Clay Silver Necklace. Art Clay Silver Pendant. Art Clay Silver Brooch.

Aida Art Clay Silver And Mitsubishi PMC Silver Clay.

There are two popular makes of silver clay: Art Clay made by Aida Chemical Industries and PMC made by Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, in Japan. They're both clay-like materials made of fine silver powder and water-soluble organic binders.

Art Clay Silver and PMC Silver, sometimes just called silver clay, metal clay, or precious-metal clay, are easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf and programme the temperature and hold-time.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid 999 silver: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.

All jewellery kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, but several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


Although we chose to work with, sell, and provide classes in Art Clay, both makes fire in a similar way. So any kiln suitable for Art Clay will be just as good for PMC.

If you're currently using PMC, try Art Clay. There are differences in the feel, the shrinkage, the strength, the surface lustre, the product range, the pricing, and the general commercial setup if you're running a serious business.


To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

BRONZE CLAY
Bronze-Copper Lobster Bangle By Gordon Uyehara.

Bronze Clay And BronzClay.

There are three popular makes of bronze clay: Bronze Clay made by ClayMania, BronzClay made by Metal Adventures, and Prometheus Bronze ProClay made by Odak. They're all clay-like materials made of fine bronze powder and water-soluble organic binders. However, they're fired in different ways:

Prometheus Bronze Clay is easy to fire: wrap your dried work in kitchen tissue or ceramic cloth, put it on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. It can also be fired in charcoal.

Clay Mania Bronze Clay and MetalAdventures BronzClay fire in a special way. Fired normally, the surface would oxidise so, to minimize this, they're embedded in activated charcoal granules in a covered stainless steel container. Charcoal made from coconut shells produces a natural bronze colour, and charcoal made from coal produces a colourful range of patinas.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid bronze, an alloy of 89% copper and 11% tin: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.


The stainless steel container for the Paragon SC-2 measures 162mm x 176mm x 100mm high, and holds 1 litre of charcoal. To fire larger pieces, or more pieces at the same time, you'll need a larger kiln, such as the Paragon Xpress E-12A. The container for the E-12A measures 265mm x 162mm x 152mm high and holds 3 litres of charcoal.

The 1230°C firebrick E12A costs more than the 1095°C ceramic-fibre SC2. However, it's two and a half times larger than the SC-2 and is a versatile mixed-media kiln suited to continual high temperatures.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

All jewellery kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, but several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


I can't recommend one clay as being the best. There are differences in the feel, the firing, the shrinkage, the strength, and the surface patinas, so try them and experiment: they're not expensive.
However, as Prometheus Bronze Clay is easy to fire and costs less than the others, try it first? It comes as 100gm of soft clay in a packet, or 10gm of creamy clay in a syringe with three tips that you can cut or shape.

There's also Creative Bronze, which is almost certainly Prometheus Bronze Clay renamed. I'll leave it you to work out why very similar products can differ so much in price.


Also, in November 2014, 100gms of Art Clay Silver Clay costs about 12 times more than Prometheus Bronze Clay. So, if you're still in the learning phase, you can try out ideas before possibly wasting your expensive silver clay. However, bronze is a beautiful metal so, as with many materials, you need to exploit its qualities and try to produce beautiful original pieces.

To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

COPPER CLAY
Copper Earring By Zina Kuscynska Richterova.

Copper Clay And CopprClay.

There are four popular makes of copper clay: Art Clay Copper made by Aida Chemical Industries, Copper Clay made by ClayMania, CopprClay made by Metal Adventures, and Prometheus Copper ProClay made by Odak. They're all clay-like materials made of fine copper powder and water-soluble organic binders. However, they're fired in different ways:

Clay Mania Copper Clay and MetalAdventures CopprClay fire in a special way. Fired normally, the surface would oxidise so, to minimize this, they're embedded in activated charcoal granules in a covered stainless steel container. Charcoal made from coconut shells produces a natural copper colour.

Art Clay Copper is easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. In most kilns, several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time: so you might want more than one.

Prometheus Copper Clay is easy to fire: wrap your dried work in kitchen tissue or ceramic cloth, put it on a kiln shelf, and programme the temperature and hold time. It can also be fired in charcoal.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid copper: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.


The stainless steel container for the Paragon SC-2 measures 162mm x 176mm x 100mm, and holds 1 litre of charcoal. To fire larger pieces, or more pieces at the same time, you'll need a larger kiln, such as the Paragon Xpress E-12A. The container for the E-12A measures 265mm x 162mm x 152mm and holds 3 litres of charcoal.

The 1230°C firebrick E12A costs more than the 1095°C ceramic-fibre SC2. However, it's two and a half times larger than the SC-2 and is a versatile mixed-media kiln suited to continual high temperatures.

Particulates represent a health risk if they're breathed in, so wear a HEPA mask when cleaning out your kiln, mixing kiln wash, and working with charcoals, ceramic-fibre blocks, cloths, and papers. And, ideally, use protective glasses.

All jewellery kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, but several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


I can't recommend one clay as being the best. There are differences in the feel, the firing, the shrinkage, the strength, and the surface patinas, so try them and experiment: they're not expensive.
However, as Prometheus Copper Clay is easy to fire and costs less than the others, try it first? It comes as 100gm of soft clay in a packet, or 10gm of creamy clay in a syringe with three tips that you can cut or shape.

There's also Creative Copper, which is almost certainly Prometheus Copper Clay renamed. I'll leave it you to work out why very similar products can differ so much in price.


Also, in November 2014, 100gms of Art Clay Silver Clay costs about 12 times more than Prometheus Copper Clay. So, if you're still in the learning phase, you can try out ideas before possibly wasting your expensive silver clay. However, copper is a beautiful metal so, as with many materials, you need to exploit its qualities and try to produce beautiful original pieces.

To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

GOLD CLAY
Gold Clay Pendant By Claudia S Atkins.

Aida Art Clay Gold And Mitsubishi PMC Gold Clay.

There are two popular makes of gold clay: Art Clay made by Aida Chemical Industries and PMC made by Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, in Japan. They're both clay-like materials made of fine gold powder and water-soluble organic binders.

Art Clay Gold and PMC Gold, sometimes just called gold clay, metal clay, or precious-metal clay, are easy to fire: put your dried work on a kiln shelf and programme the temperature and hold-time.

As they're fired, the binders vapourise, releasing very small amounts of non-toxic carbon dioxide and water, and the metal powder sinters, leaving solid 22 carat gold: real metal, not something that just looks like metal.

All jewellery kilns include a durable shelf kit so that you can start work straight away, but several shelves can be stacked to make better use of your time and reduce the unit-cost of firing: so you might want more than one.


Although we chose to work with, sell, and provide classes in Art Clay, both makes fire in a similar way. So any kiln suitable for Art Clay will be just as good for PMC.

If you're currently using PMC, try Art Clay. There are differences in the feel, the shrinkage, the strength, the surface lustre, the product range, the pricing, and the general commercial setup if you're running a serious business.


To learn more, use the links below the menu bar near the top of the page. You can buy ArtClay, bronze clay, copper clay, gold clay, and related products in the on-line shop.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO GLASS AND GEMS

Obsidian. Fish. Curved Glass by Infabbrica. Lauscha By Carrie Fertig.

What Is Glass?

The main component of glass is silicon dioxide, often called silica: found naturally and plentifully as sand. When it melts, at around 1700°C, it's like syrup on a cold day. When it cools, it forms a rigid brittle glass called quartz glass.

To lower the melting point, and reduce the cost of melting, chemicals are added: typically sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. Other chemicals, and different heating and cooling processes, produce a range of colours and mechanical properties.

Chemically, glass is defined as an amorphous solid but, as it's heated, it becomes softer allowing it to be blown, cast, coated, decorated, engraved, heat-treated, moulded, poured, pressed, sagged, and slumped.

A form of glass occurs naturally within the mouth of a volcano when the intense heat of an eruption melts sand to form Obsidian, a hard black-to-brown glassy type of stone, shown in the photo. Although it was used decoratively, when it fractures it has very sharp edges, many times sharper than a steel knife-edge, so was also used for tools and weapons: and the pitiful rituals of circumcision and female genital mutilation.

ANNEALING
Annealed Beads Made Into A Necklace.

What Is Annealing?

During annealing, fabrication stresses are relieved as the molecules cool and arrange themselves into a regular stable matrix. Successful annealing is the key to creating glasswork that will remain attractive and durable. It's quite a long process, so a kiln with an automatic comprehensive programmer is essential.

FREE BEAD ANNEALING GUIDE

A Bead Annealing Guide.

You can download, and print, a Bead Annealing Guide. Paragon created it in 2013 so it's only a guide, not a contemporary definitive document. Click here. It's a pdf file, but your device should already have a pdf viewer.

CUBIC ZIRCONIA
Cubic Zirconia.

What Are Cubic Zirconia.

Cubic Zirconia is the most popular substitute for a diamond because they look almost dentical. Cubic Zirconia or CZ, is made from zirconium dioxide which comes closer than any other gem to matching the characteristics of a diamond. It's not quite as hard as diamond and is slightly less sparkly but displays more prismatic fire with more colour sparkles within the gem, especially if metal oxides are added during the production process.

Caring for CZ is important because they are more brittle than diamonds and susceptible to wear and tear such as chipping and scratches over time.

DIAMONDS
Diamond.

What Are Diamonds?

Diamonds are not a form of glass: they're naturally occurring gems composed of carbon atoms arranged in a very regular pattern.

Between 1 billion to 3.3 billion years ago, simple carbon containing trace minerals was transformed into diamonds by heat and pressure at depths of over 100 miles below the earth’s surface. We can’t mine down far enough to reach the earth’s mantle but fortunately volcanic eruptions brought the diamonds closer to the surface. They're extremely hard and until recently were regarded as the world's hardest natural material.

Although diamonds are extremely expensive, their price is governed by carat, cut, colour, and clarity. It’s very rare to find a diamond that doesn’t contain flaws: however the impurities, and internal refraction and dispersion of light, give diamonds their brilliance.


Synthetic diamonds are manufactured and are identical in hardness, dispersion, gravity, refraction and chemical composition to the highest quality mined diamonds available. Whereas a one-carat top quality diamond would cost thousands of pounds to buy, the same quality man-made diamond could be made for less than £5.

This will obviously have a huge impact on the diamond industry over the next few years as when comparing a cultured and mined diamond side by side they are virtually undistinguishable. A bit like pearls, they can be grown from a single crystal using chemical vapor deposition.

DICHROIC GLASS
Dichroic Glass.

What Are Dichroic Glasses.

Dichroic glass has two different colours: a transmitted colour and a reflective colour, both of which change depending on the angle of view. For example blue-red will be blue in transmission and red in reflection.

During manufacture, quartz and metal oxides are vapourised onto the surface of the glass using a vacuum deposition process, forming a multi-layer crystal structure.

ENAMELLING
Enamelled Jewellery.

What Is Enamelling?

Enamelling involves applying a glass paste to metal and then heating it to fuse it to the surface. The finish of the enamel can be translucent or opaque depending on the temperature used to melt the glass. Higher temperatures result in a more transparent and durable enamel whilst lower temperatures give a more opaque and fragile surface. Dyes and pigments can be included to produce any colour.

The Paragon SC2 is ideal for enamelling, although other kilns are fine. So click the sc2-sc3:jewellery link below the menu bar near the top of the page. The SC-2W and SC-3W doors include a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in the centre of the door, allowing you to take a quick peep at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress

FIRE POLISHING
Fire Polished Glass.

What Is Fire Polishing?

To fire polish glass, return the items to the kiln and melt them just enough to give a smooth polished appearance. It needs a temperature of around 700°C, and is often used to round the edges of glass after fusing.

Fire polishing already-slumped items is more difficult because the polishing temperature is close to the slumping temperature and it can distort the appearance of the piece. So it generally works best for flat items, rather than slumped ones. It has the slight limitation that the part of the item that touches the kiln shelf won't polish.

FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Fused Glass.

What Is Glass Fusing?

If two or more pieces of glass in contact are heated, they begin to soften and fuse together. With careful heating and cooling, the separate pieces of glass become one.

If glass is put on a mould and heated, it begins to soften and collapse, or sag, onto the mould: a common technique for making bowls and plates.

Sagging and slumping are often thought of as being the same. Correctly: during sagging, heated glass, supported at its edges, sags down in the middle to conform to a mould; during slumping, heated glass, supported at its middle, slumps down at its edges to conform to a mould.

LAMPWORK AND BEADS
Beads.

What Is Lampwork?

Lamp-working is the traditional name for glasswork that uses a flame to melt glass rods and tubes. As the glass softens, it's shaped by turning and using tools.

Early lampworkers used an oil-lamp, and blew air into the flame through a pipe. Later, propane, natural gas, or butane torches replaced the lamp, although kilns are now increasingly popular, particularly for annealing.

Beads are usually made on steel rods, or mandrels. When the beads are finished, the rods are removed leaving holes for threading the beads. Cold working techniques can be used, such as etching, faceting, polishing, and sandblasting.

LOST-WAX BURNOUT
Paragon W13 Lost Wax Casting Kiln With A Sentry Programmer.

What Is Lost Wax Casting?

Lost-wax burnout starts with making a wax shape and then making a mould of the shape. When the mould is heated in a kiln, the wax melts out through channels, usually over a burnout mesh and into a tray. The shape is then cast in glass or metal from the mould.

It's important to prevent wax or carbon sticking to the elements, so burnout kilns have a top vent to release fumes. Carbon build-up inside a kiln could conduct electricity and would eventually cause the elements to fail.

Paragon make kilns designed for this: the W series. So click the w:lost-wax link under the menu bar near the top of the page. They all have top vents and optional wax trays.

MOISSANITE
Moissanite.

What Is Moissanite.

Moissanite is another diamond substitute which is a rare mineral found naturally in small quantities, although Moissanite for jewellery is artificially made. It’s made from Silicon Carbide which means it’s able to withstand high temperatures and is very hard.

Moissanite is noticeably much sparklier and displays more prismatic fire than a diamond which is noticeable even to an untrained observer. Moissanite does have inclusions like a diamond and it may also have a greenish tinge to its colour.

PÂTE DE VERRE
Pâte De Verre.

What Is Pâte De Verre?

Pâte de verre involves making a glass paste, applying it to a mould, firing it, and removing the piece from the mould. The glass paste is usually made from glass powder, a binder such as gum arabic, distilled water, and colouring agents or enamels. It allows precise placing of colours in the mould, whereas other techniques often result in the glass straying from its intended position.

I think, currently, Daum is the only large commercial crystal manufacturer using the pâte de verre process for art glass and crystal sculptures.

SLUMPING BOTTLES
Slumped Bottle.

What Is Glass Slumping?

This a simple technique but it requires good ideas. A bottle, such as those used for wine, beer, cola, or champagne, is softened in a kiln so that it begins to flatten out or conforms to a mould. There are too many moulds to stock here but there are lots available on line. Or make your own from clay.

The bottles need to be clean and dry, with all paper labels and tops removed. Put them in your kiln on a shelf, either with shelf paper or kiln wash to prevent the glass sticking to the shelf.

Paragon makes a kiln designed for this: the Trio. So click the trio link below the menu bar near the top of the page. It's wide enough for most bottles but can still use a regular socket.

STAINED GLASS
Stained Glass.

What Is Stained Glass?

Stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, traditionally held together by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design.

The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln.

It requires artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the Late Middle Ages.

SWAROVSKI CRYSTAL
Swarovski Crystal.

What Is Swarovski Crystal?

Swarovski Crystal isn’t a gemstone or even a crystal: it’s a form of glass made at high temperatures by melting silicon oxide powders with lead to form what is known as lead crystal. The exact process is patented by Swarovski but it has approximately 32% lead content to increase the crystals refraction index to resemble that of a diamond. To produce a diamond like effect the crystal glass is precision cut and then polished again by a Swarovski patented process that gives the crystal a high quality finish.

The crystals are often further enhanced by coating the glass with an Aurora Borealis or AB coating that gives the surface a rainbow like appearance to simulate dispersion from a diamond. Swarovski crystal is not as hard as diamond so its susceptible to scratches and chipping from wear and tear, but it’s harder than standard glass.

TACK FUSING
Tack Fused Glass.

What Is Tack Fusing?

Tack fusing is the joining together of glass, with as little change to the shape of the pieces as possible. Tack fusing may be used either decoratively, or to assemble a large piece of glass from laminations.

Where tack fusing is used to apply small decorative details to a larger piece, you might want to partially melt the small pieces so that they change shape, usually becoming more spherical under the influence of surface tension, but without changing the shape of the carrier piece. This can be done by using an increased temperature, but only briefly. The carrier piece has a larger thermal mass, so heats up more slowly than the small decorations.

VITRIGRAPH WORK
Glass Stringers.

What Is Vitrigraph?

The vitrigraph process usually uses a kiln to make glass stringers. The bottom of the kiln is removed and set aside. The kiln body is put on a thick ceramic square with a central hole.

A crucible of glass is put inside, and the whole combination lifted well away from the floor to allow moulten glass to fall through a hole in the crucible and form long stringers. Ceramic squares are in the on-line shop.

Paragon make a kiln designed for this: the Caldera. So click the caldera:ceramics link below the menu bar near the top of the page. The bottom is a separate part and can be unclipped.

WARM GLASS
Warm Glass Flower Bowl.

What Is Warm Glass?

The term warm glass refers to fusing, slumping, and other glass processes which take place at temperatures between about 600°C to 925°C. Although that doesn't sound warm, it is when you compare it to glassblower's working temperatures, which often exceed 1100°C. Warm glass is sometimes called kiln-formed glass.

PARAGON KILNS INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTOR KILNS, OVENS, FURNACES, PARTS, AND SUPPORT
Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer PCB. Paragon Type-K Thermocouple. Paragon Relay. Paragon Shelf Kit.

Paragon Kilns, Furnaces, and Ovens For Annealing, Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Glass, Jewellery, Knife Making, Lost Wax, Silver Clays, Heat Treating, Lampwork, Porcelain, And Vitrigraph.

is a Cherry Heaven internet resource. Cherry Heaven is a top-tier international distributor for Texas-made Paragon kilns, furnaces, ovens, and accessories, and has been one of their top-selling partners from 2006 to : a pleasing outcome since the UK is only one third the area of Texas and one fortieth the area of the US.

As this is an on-line resource, there isn't a paper catalogue or a price list. However, you can mail or call a technician about kilns, power supplies, public area safety, a special project, business ideas, diagnostics, repairs, or reselling opportunities.


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UK To EU Plug Adapter.
Ceramic Block.
Ceramic Cloth.
EU Plug.
UK-EU Adapter.
Dry Powder Extinguisher.
Glare Resistant Glasses.
HEPA Mask.
heat-resistant Gloves.
Kitiki Cutters.
Kitiki Flush Cutters.
Kitiki Flat-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Pointed-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Bent-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Round-Nose Pliers.
Protective Glasses.
Potter & Brumfield Relay.
Dorset, SW England.
UK 13A Plug.
Large Rubber Drum 950gm Open
The AX-4 Digital Controller.
MiniKiln Closed.
Bartlett-Paragon Touch Screen Digital Controller.
Paragon BlueBird Bead Annealing Kiln.
Lauscha by Carrie Fertig.
Activated Charcoal Granules.
Paragon Caldera Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Caldera Bead Kiln.
Paragon Crucible.
Paragon Fusion CS14D Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion CS14SB Glass And Bead Kiln.
Paragon Caldera XL Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon F500 Lampwork Kiln.
Paragon FireFly Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 7 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 8 Glass Kiln.
Paragon GL18ADTSD Glass Kiln.
Paragon HT-14D Heat Treating Furnace.
Paragon Janus 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon KM18D Knife Making Oven.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Unassembled.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Suction Cup.
Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Kiln.
Paragon PMT21 Heat Treating Kiln.
Paragon Door Peephole And Vent.
Stainless Steel Pans.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2B Bead-Door Kiln.
Paragon SC2W Enamelling Kiln.
Paragon SC4 Glass Kiln.
Paragon SC2BW Jewellery And Bead Kiln.
Paragon SC2D Pro-3 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Shelf Kit.
Paragon SC-2 Jade Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.
Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch-Screen Controller.
Paragon SC-2 Pink Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Pro Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Turqoise Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Purple Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Navy Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Berry Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon ST-8 Kiln Table.
Paragon Kiln Table With Casters.
Paragon TNF 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon GL24 Kiln Table.
Paragon Xpress 1613 Top Row Of Bricks.
Paragon W Lost-Wax Casting Kiln.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray With Grille.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray With Grid.
USB Plug.
Paragon Xpress E-12 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-12B Bead Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-14 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Xpress Q-11 Ceramics Kiln.
Prometheus Pro-7.