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Paragon TNF1313 663 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass And Raku. Paragon TNF2329 243 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass And Raku. Paragon TNF2822 273 Kiln With A Sentry Controller For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass And Raku.
Paragon TNF 1613 1613 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Heat-Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass, And Raku.
Paragon TNF 82-3 1622 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Heat-Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass, And Raku.
Paragon TNF 24-3 2329 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Heat-Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass, And Raku.
Paragon TNF 27-3 2822 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Heat-Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass, And Raku.
Paragon TNF 66-3 1313 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Heat-Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass, And Raku.
Paragon TNF 23-3 2322 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Heat-Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass, And Raku.
Paragon TNF 28-3 2829 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Heat-Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Glass, And Raku.

The Paragon TNF Kilns For Annealing, Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Heat-Treating, Knife-Making, Porcelain, Pottery, Raku, And Stoneware.

Paragon TNF kilns are generally used for ceramics, earthenware, glass, porcelain, pottery, and raku, although they have other applications. They're 1290°C to 1175°C kilns with digital programmers, in Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. Learn about Paragon TNF kilns on this page.


There are seven versions, in ascending order of internal size: the 1260°C TNF1313, the 1290°C TNF1613, TNF1622, TNF2322, TNF2329, and TNF2822, and the 1175°C TNF2829. They're multi-sided, wired-in, top-opening, floor-standing kilns with firebrick interiors and Sentry 12-key programmers.


Prices here are transparent: they're for UK-EU voltage, CE marked, CL CSA approved, and TUV tested kilns, and include comprehensive instructions, UK VAT, and free continuing support from a top-tier international distributor.

For prices, trading terms, and secure on-line shopping, use the shop link below the menu bar near the top-right of any page. The order form is on the shop page, after the price list near the bottom.

Kilns that weigh more than 30kg can't be delivered by a regular parcel-service van: they need a tail-lift lorry with a hydraulic pallet trolley. GB-mainland delivery charges are on the shop page. For other locations, call or mail.

Paragon TNF663 TNF1313 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass. Paragon TNF1613 TNF1613 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass.
Paragon TNF1313 Ceramics, Glass, And Raku Kiln. Paragon TNF1613 Ceramics, Glass, And Porcelain Kiln.
Paragon TNF823 TNF1622 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass. Paragon TNF233 TNF2322 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass.
Paragon TNF1622 Ceramics, Glass, And Porcelain Kiln. Paragon TNF2322 Ceramics, Glass, And Pottery Kiln.
Paragon TNF243 TNF2329 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass. Paragon TNF273 TNF2822 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass.
Paragon TNF2329 Ceramics, Glass, And Pottery Kiln. Paragon TNF2822 Ceramics, Glass, And Raku Kiln.
Paragon TNF283 TNF2829 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Low-Fire Ceramics, Pottery, Raku, And Glass. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.
Paragon TNF2829 LowFire Ceramics And Glass Kiln. Paragon Sentry Programmer.

If you want to look at specific TNF kilns and don't need to read any general introductions, compare or review the main features, or consider other kilns, click here to jump down the page. I'll start with the smallest.


Click To Jump To The TNF Kilns.

A GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE PARAGON TNF KILNS

OPTIONAL READING

The Paragon TNF Kilns For Annealing, Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Heat-Treating, Knife-Making, Porcelain, Pottery, Raku, And Stoneware.

Paragon TNF66-3 1313 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass. Paragon TNF1613 1613 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass. Paragon TNF24-3 2229 Kiln With A Sentry Controller For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass. Paragon TNF28-3 2829 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Ceramics, Porcelain, Pottery, And Glass.

Paragon TNF kilns are generally used for ceramics, glass, porcelain, earthenware, heat-treating, pottery, and raku, although they have other applications.


Every version is described in detail below so, although there's a comparative table and photos, I recommend that you set aside some time and read about them. Remember that, in the US, Paragon uses inches, not mm: the US is about the only industrialised nation not to conform to international standards.


Paragon's numbering system was started years ago. However, it's now very misleading. For example, the numbers in TNF66 and TNF82 don't mean anything, the TNF23 and TNF24 are the same width in inches, and so are the TNF27 and TNF28. To make it easier to compare the versions, I've changed the numbers so that the first two digits represent the approximate internal width and the second two represent the approximate internal height. So rely on the descriptions here.

If it helps, there are handy approximate conversions: 1 inch is 25mm, 6 inches is 150mm, 12 inches is 300mm, and 24 inches is 600mm.

This internet resourse is very comprehensive so is much easier to use on a computer than on a tablet or a phone. If you want to compare the different versions you could print the relevant pages. They should print correctly on A4 paper but check first in Print Preview so that nothing goes missing, particularly if you normally use wide margins. Fast or economy print will use less ink.


There are seven versions, in ascending order of internal size: the 1260°C TNF1313, the 1290°C TNF1613, TNF1622, TNF2322, TNF2329, and TNF2822, and the 1175°C TNF2829. They're multi-sided, wired-in, top-opening, floor-standing kilns with firebrick interiors and Sentry 12-key programmers.

Yours can be in Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise. However, it's only the control boxes that are painted: not the whole kiln. Customised kilns are made to order, so can't be returned if the colour isn't exactly as in the photo.


They normally have enhanced Sentry 12-key programmers. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The cone-fire mode will simplify your work with ceramics.

Alternatively, you can choose an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.

When the programmer turns the elements off at, for example, 700°C, residual heat will continue to increase the temperature briefly. A small kiln might overshoot to 715°C before dropping back down. The programmer's software slows down the heating just before the target temperature, reducing any overshoot and improving the accuracy.

Digital programmers allow you to set up sequences, each one with multiple heating, holding, or cooling segments: so you can choose the heating and cooling rates, target temperatures, and hold times, save the sequences, and re-use them.

Being able to create, edit, and save your own programmes is important because, having experimented and diversified, most people fire materials, or combinations of materials, at different temperatures and for different times than are recommended.


The elements are in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick firebricks. The kilns are fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a UK-EU legal safety requirement.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened with refractory cement.

They have special-limit nickel-chromium K-type thermocouples. These respond quickly to changes in temperature, resist corrosion, and have an error margin of less than 0.4% instead of the typical 0.8%. However, for continual high-temperature high-precision professional use, these can be upgraded to platinum-rhodium S-types.


Floor-standing kilns include a rigid metal table with lockable casters so the kiln can be moved easily, a top-shelf cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in some of the photos.


The US-international kilns don't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash so, if you don't need a shelf, you won't have to pay for one. However, I've recommended pro kits because a durable heavy cordierite shelf resists thermal fracture, provides a smooth stable work surface, protects the floor of the kiln's interior from glass accidents, and helps to even out any small temperature changes during annealing, enamelling, firing, fusing, and heat treating as the elements turn on and off.


For help, or in the unlikely event of a fault, you can mail or call an engineer in the UK. However, checks, adjustments, and repairs are simple, needing little more than a PosiDriv screwdriver: watch the on-line videos using the watch-videos link or read the help pages using use the help link, both below the menu bar near the top of any page. Alternatively, we can service the kiln in our workshop at Cherry Heaven.

APPLICATIONS: WHAT CAN I DO WITH A PARAGON TNF KILN?

OPTIONAL READING

What Can I Do With A Paragon TNF Kiln?

You can use these kilns for firing ceramics, earthenware, porcelain, pottery, and stoneware, annealing beads and glass, bisqueware, ceramic art, painting china, crucible glass work, making dolls, fire polishing, glass art, glass fusing, sagging, and slumping, forming glass panels, glass stringers, heat treating, knife making, laboratory testing, lampwork, lost-wax casting, mixing custom glass colours, pâte de verre, raku, staining glass, hardening and tempering blades, cutters, dies, and tools, and many other materials and processes.

You can make architectural features, bowls, ceramic-art, decorations, figurines, flat panels, garden ornaments, plant pots, platters, porcelain dolls, raku vases, tableware, and tiles, as unique hand-crafted pieces or as repeatable stock for retail.

They're ideal for your arts centre, college, course venue, shared craft units, dental lab, engineering works, glass works, knife studio, machine shop, medical laboratory, metal-work business, technical facility, or university.

IS A TNF KILN THE BEST CHOICE? OPTIONAL READING

Is A Paragon TNF Kiln Going To Be The Best Long Term Choice?

The TNF kilns are hot enough, at 1175°C to 1290°C, for general ceramics and glass work, within their size and temperature limits. However, if you think that a front-opener or more specialised kiln might be more versatile, here are some suggestions:


Bead-annealing kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 650°C. For this, look at the BlueBird. However, other kilns have bead doors: the small 1290°C Caldera B and 1095°C SC2B, the medium 1290°C Xpress E12B, and the larger 925°C Fusion 14B. These are hotter, so more versatile.

Glass kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 925°C. For these, look at the F Series, Fusion:CS Series, GL Series, or Pearl Series. These are not hot enough for ceramics.

Jewellery, silver clay, and enamelling kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1095°C. For these, look at the small SC Series or the medium Xpress Series. The SC series are not hot enough for ceramics.

Vitrigraph kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1095°C. For these, look at the small Caldera or the medium Vitrigraph.

Ceramics kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1290°C. For these, look at the small Caldera Series and FireFly Series, medium Xpress Series, or large Janus Series, PMT Series, and TNF Series. These can also be used for glass work.

Heat-treating kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1095°C or 1290°C. For these, look at the HT Series and PMT Series. Although they look similar, the HT has a bottom-hinged door and the PMT has a side-hinged door.

Knife-making kilns generally have a maximum temperature of 1290°C. The KM Series are made for depth rather than width. You can choose a guillotine, drop-down, or a side-hinged door.

The W Series have a top vent so are usually used for jewellery moulds and lost-wax burnout. For lost wax casting there are optional metal grids and wax trays. The small SC Series and most of the medium Xpress Series also have top vents.


To learn more about these and other kilns, use the appropriate links below the menu bar near the top of the page. And remember that each series has kilns of different sizes with different options.


VERSION DESCRIPTION MAX °C WATTS KG INTERIOR INTERIOR SIZE MM
TNF1313 top opening 1260 3600 78 firebrick seven-sided 343 x 337
TNF1613 top opening 1290 6400 90 firebrick eight-sided 419 x 332
TNF1622 top opening 1290 7200 119 firebrick eight-sided 419 x 565
TNF2322 top-opening 1290 9600 166 firebrick ten-sided 572 x 565
TNF2329 top opening 1290 11500 162 firebrick ten-sided 572 x 737
TNF2822 top opening 1290 11500 227 firebrick twelve-sided 711 x 565
TNF2829 top opening 1175 11800 226 firebrick twelve-sided 711 x 737
Fusion 10 top-opening 925 7200 117 firebrick ten-sided 597 x 279
Janus 1613 top opening 1290 4800 90 firebrick eight-sided 419 x 337
Janus 23 top opening 1290 9600 167 firebrick ten-sided 572 x 514
Janus 24 front opening 1290 11520 185 firebrick square 610 x 572 x 381
Janus 27 top opening 1290 11520 245 firebrick twelve-sided 711 x 565
Janus Ovation top opening 1290 16000 304 firebrick ten-sided oval 1041 x 572 x 572
Viking 2229 top opening 1290 14400 176 firebrick twelve-sided 572 x 737
Viking 2822 top opening 1290 14400 226 firebrick twelve-sided 711 x 565
Viking 2829 top opening 1290 14400 226 firebrick twelve-sided 711 x 737

THE PARAGON TNF1313

ANNEALING, CERAMICS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, POTTERY, AND RAKU
Paragon TNF1313 66-3 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.

The Paragon TNF1313 TNF66-3 Kiln For Annealing, Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Heat-Treating, Knife-Making, Porcelain, Pottery, And Stoneware.

The Paragon TNF1313 is a 1260°C cone 8, seven-sided, wired-in, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry 12-key programmer. Choose Paragon blue, or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The TNF1313 is about 13 inches across and 13 inches high inside. In the US, it's called the TNF66-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick, although it's not 66 inches anywhere and all the TNF kilns have 3 inch bricks. So, for clarity within the TNF series, it should have been called the TNF1313?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 3600W, so it needs a 15A minimum wired-in power supply. It has a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a UK-EU legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 559mm x 648mm x 711mm high. The body has two lifting handles and there are two wide-view peephole-vents in two of the sides. The lid has a handle and a fold-away lockable support. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 67Kg.

The metal table, shown in the second photo, is 457mm x 457mm x 305mm high and has lockable casters, a top shelf with a cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The firing chamber is 343mm x 337mm high, and heats from the sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. It has an electro-mechanical relay and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 8, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch: more useful features: factory fitted
List. a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List. an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List. an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List. a USB computer interface: factory fitted
List. a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List. a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List. stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List. ceramic fibre cloth
List. ceramic block
List. HEPA dust mask
List. clear protective glasses
List. glare-resistant glasses
List. heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

Reviews And Opinions.

The Paragon TNF1313 is a 1260°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, pottery, raku, or glass studio. It's large enough for 300mm diameter bowls and plates and 300mm high pots and vases. At 3600W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the elements age or the local voltage drops.


It normally has an enhanced Sentry 12-key programmer. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 8, will simplify your work with ceramics.

Alternatively, you can choose an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.


The TNF1313 and Xpress 1313 are the same size and look similar. The TNF1313 is a 1260°C 3600W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer and side elements. The Xpress 1313 is a 1260°C 3600W kiln with a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer and side elements.

THE PARAGON TNF1313 KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The Xpress 1313, Xpress 66-3, and TNF 66-3. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

The Paragon TNF1313 TNF66-3 Kiln Furniture.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 305mm x 15mm cordierite shelves, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 305mm x 15mm shelf and three shelf posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want extra kits. This kiln has room for three.

Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted clay, glass, or metal will ruin the firebricks.


The kiln can accommodate a charcoal-filled stainless steel container needed to fire some makes of bronze clay and copper clay, both described on this internet resource.


The lost-wax burnout tray for this kiln measures 203mm x 203mm x 25mm. There are two parts: a stainless steel tray and a metal mesh that fits into the tray. The melting wax drops into the tray instead of onto the floor of the kiln. The tray and mesh can also be used for supporting beads, enamel work, and fused glass.

THE PARAGON TNF1613

ANNEALING, CERAMICS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, PORCELAIN, POTTERY, AND RAKU
Paragon TNF1613 With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.

The Paragon TNF1613 TNF1613-3 Kiln For Annealing, Casting, Ceramics, Dolls, Earthenware, Enamelling, Glass Fusing And Slumping, Heat Treating, Porcelain, Pottery, Raku, And Stoneware.

The Paragon TNF1613 is a 1290°C cone 10, eight-sided, wired-in, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry 12-key digital programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The TNF1613 is about 16.5 inches across and 13.25 inches high inside. In the US, it's sometimes called the TNF1613-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick, although all the TNF kilns have 3 inch bricks.


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 6400W, so it needs a 27A minimum wired-in power supply. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a UK-EU legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 648mm x 724mm x 813mm high. The body has two lifting handles and there are two wide-view peephole-vents in two of the sides. The lid has a handle and a fold-away lockable support. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 90Kg.

The firing chamber is 419mm x 332mm high, and heats from the sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. It has two electro-mechanical relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The metal table, shown in the second photo, is 457mm x 457mm x 305mm high and has lockable casters, a top shelf with a cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The options, upgrades, and accessories for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List. a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch: more useful features: factory fitted
List a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted at the bottom
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a precision long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

Reviews And Opinions.

The Paragon TNF1613 is a 1290°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, porcelain, pottery, raku, or glass studio. It's large enough for 360mm diameter bowls and plates and 300mm high pots and vases. At 6400W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the elements age or the local voltage drops.


It normally has an enhanced Sentry 12-key programmer. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over optional hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.

You can upgrade to an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.


The TNF1613, Xpress 1613, and Janus 1613 are the same size and look similar. The TNF1613 is a 1290°C 6400W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer and side elements. The Xpress 1613 is a 1290°C 6400W kiln with a Sentry Xpress 3-key programmer and side elements. And the Janus 1613 is a 1290°C 4800W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, lid and side elements, and a ceramics-glass switch: for ceramics try all the side elements and for glass try the top and middle elements.


Finally, a quote from a user: I make decorative ceramic garden pots, outdoor animal-ornaments, indoor plant pots, cookware, fruit and serving dishes, and pet-food bowls, which I sell on-line and to shops. I use different arrangements of shelves and posts depending on the sizes and shapes of my work. The kiln heats up quickly, is on about five times a week, and just keeps going.

THE PARAGON TNF1613 KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The Xpress 1613, Janus 1613, and TNF 1613. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon TNF1613 1613-3.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 381mm x 15mm cordierite shelves, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 381mm x 15mm shelf and three shelf posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, or 100mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want extra kits. This kiln has room for four.

Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted clay, glass, or metal will ruin the firebricks.


The kiln can accommodate a charcoal-filled stainless steel container needed to fire some makes of bronze clay and copper clay, both described on this internet resource.


The lost-wax burnout tray for this kiln measures 228mm x 216mm x 25mm. There are two parts: a stainless steel tray and a metal mesh that fits into the tray. The melting wax drops into the tray instead of onto the floor of the kiln. The tray and mesh can also be used for supporting beads, enamel work, and fused glass.

THE PARAGON TNF1622 ANNEALING, CERAMICS, GLASS, HEAT TREATING, PORCELAIN, POTTERY, AND RAKU
Paragon TNF82-3 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.

The Paragon TNF1622 TNF82-3 Kiln For Annealing, Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Heat-Treating, Knife-Making, Porcelain, Pottery, And Stoneware.

The Paragon TNF1622 is a 1290°C cone 10, eight-sided, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry 12-key programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The US TNF1622 is about 16 inches across and 22 inches high inside. In the US, it's called the TNF82-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick, although it's not 82 inches anywhere and all the TNF kilns have 3 inch bricks. So, for clarity within the TNF series,, it should have been called the TNF1622?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 7200W, so it needs a 30A minimum wired-in power supply. It has a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a UK-EU legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 648mm x 719mm x 953mm. The body has two lifting handles, the lid has a fold-away support, and there are two wide-view peepholes in one of the sides. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 119Kg.

The firing chamber is 419mm x 565mm high, and heats from the sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. It has two electro-mechanical relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The metal table, shown in the second photo, is 457mm x 457mm x 305mm high and has lockable casters, a top shelf with a cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch: more useful features: factory fitted
List a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

Reviews And Opinions.

The Paragon TNF1622 is a 1260°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, pottery, raku, or glass studio. It's large enough to hold four shelves, yet it still heats up quickly. At 7200W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the elements age or the local voltage drops.


It normally has an enhanced Sentry 12-key programmer. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.

Alternatively, you can choose an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.


The control box is hinged at the bottom and drops down for easy access and maintenance. A folding support holds the box open.

THE PARAGON TNF1622 KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The TNF 1622. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

The Paragon TNF1622 TNF82-3 Kiln Furniture.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 381mm x 15mm cordierite shelves, three 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: one round 381mm x 15mm shelf and three shelf posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, or 150mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want extra kits. This kiln has room for four.

Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted clay, glass, or metal will ruin the firebricks.

THE PARAGON TNF2322 CERAMICS, GLASS, PORCELAIN, POTTERY, RAKU, AND STONEWARE
Paragon TNF23-3 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.

The Paragon TNF2322 TNF23-3 Kiln For Annealing, Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Heat-Treating, Knife-Making, Porcelain, Pottery, And Stoneware.

The Paragon TNF2322 is a 1290°C cone 10, ten-sided, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry 12-key programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The US TNF2322 is about 22.5 inches across and 22 inches high inside. In the US, it's called the TNF23-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick, although it's not 23 inches anywhere and all the TNF kilns have 3 inch bricks. So, for clarity within the TNF series,, it should have been called the TNF2322?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 9600W, so it needs a 40A minimum wired-in power supply. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a UK-EU legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 775mm x 1003mm x 1118mm. The body has two lifting handles, the lid has an easy-lift sprung counter-balance hinge and a stay-open support, and there are two wide-view peepholes in one of the sides. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 166Kg.

The firing chamber is 572mm x 565mm high, and heats from the sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. It has three electro-mechanical relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The metal table, shown in the second photo, is 610mm x 610mm x 305mm high and has lockable casters, a top shelf with a cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch: more useful features: factory fitted
List a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

Reviews And Opinions.

The Paragon TNF2322 is a 1290°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, porcelian, pottery, raku, or glass studio. It's large enough to hold four shelves, yet it still heats up quickly. At 9600W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the elements age or the local voltage drops.


It normally has an enhanced Sentry 12-key programmer. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.

Alternatively, you can choose an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.


The control box is hinged at the bottom and drops down for easy access and maintenance. A folding support holds the box open.


The TNF2322, the Janus 2322, and the Viking 2322 look similar and are the same size. The TNF2322 is a 1290°C 9600W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer and side elements. The Janus 2322 is a 1290°C 8918W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, lid and side elements, and a ceramics-glass switch: for ceramics try all the side elements and for glass try the top and middle elements. The Viking 2322 is a 1290°C 14400W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, internal fuses, silent long-life mercury relays, and graded side elements for better heat distribution.

THE PARAGON TNF2322 KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The TNF2322 And Janus 2322. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

The Paragon TNF2322 TNF23-3 Kiln Furniture.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, not included in the price: two half-round 508mm x 18mm cordierite shelves, six 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. One full-size shelf would be heavy to put in, move, and take out.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: two half-round 508mm x 18mm shelves and six shelf posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, or 150mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want extra kits. This kiln has room for four.

Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted clay, glass, or metal will ruin the firebricks.


However, there is an alternative: a 500mm x 500mm x 50mm 1430°C rigidised ceramic-fibre rectangle. It's much lighter than regular ceramic and very easy to cut to shape. The off-cuts can be used as shelf supports. Its high heat-resistance and low thermal-mass make heating and cooling faster, so it's ideal for glass and ceramic kilns.

THE PARAGON TNF2329 CERAMICS, EARTHENWARE, GLASS, PORCELAIN, POTTERY, AND RAKU
Paragon TNF24-3 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.

The Paragon TNF2329 TNF24-3 Kiln For Annealing, Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Heat-Treating, Knife-Making, Porcelain, Pottery, And Stoneware.

The Paragon TNF2329 is a 1290°C cone 10, ten-sided, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry 12-key programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The US TNF2329 is about 23.5 inches across and 29 inches high inside. In the US, it's called the TNF24-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick, although it's not 24 inches anywhere and all the TNF kilns have 3 inch bricks. So, for clarity within the TNF series,, it should have been called the TNF2329?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 11500W, so it needs a 48A minimum wired-in power supply. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a UK-EU legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 775mm x 1113mm x 1219mm. The body has six lifting handles and three wide-view peepholes in one of the sides. The lid has two lifting handles, an easy-lift spring-balanced hinge, and a stay-open support. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 162Kg.

The firing chamber is 572mm x 737mm high, and heats from the sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. It has three electro-mechanical relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The metal table, shown in the second photo, is 610mm x 610mm x 305mm high and has lockable casters, a top shelf with a cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch: more useful features: factory fitted
List a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: factory fitted:
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

Reviews And Opinions.

The Paragon TNF2329 is a 1290°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, porcelian, pottery, raku, or glass studio. At 11500W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the elements age or the local voltage drops.


It normally has an enhanced Sentry 12-key programmer. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.

Alternatively, you can choose an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.


The firebrick body is in three sections that clip together so it's easy to replace the bricks or elements. The clip-on firebrick base, which sits in a steel pan, is reversible so, if you do have a glass accident, you won't have to buy a new set of bricks.


The control box is hinged at the bottom and drops down for easy access and maintenance. A folding support holds the box open.


The TNF2322, the Janus 2322, and the Viking 2322 look similar and are the same size. The TNF2322 is a 1290°C 9600W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer and side elements. The Janus 2322 is a 1290°C 8918W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, lid and side elements, and a ceramics-glass switch: for ceramics try all the side elements and for glass try the top and middle elements. The Viking 2322 is a 1290°C 14400W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, internal fuses, silent long-life mercury relays, and graded side elements for better heat distribution.

THE PARAGON TNF2329 KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The TNF2429. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

The Paragon TNF2329 TNF24-3 Kiln Furniture.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, not included in the price: two half-round 508mm x 18mm cordierite shelves, six 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. One full-size shelf would be heavy to put in, move, and take out.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: two half-round 508mm x 18mm shelves and six shelf posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, or 150mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want extra kits. This kiln has room for four.

Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted clay, glass, or metal will ruin the firebricks.


However, there is an alternative: a 500mm x 500mm x 50mm 1430°C rigidised ceramic-fibre rectangle. It's much lighter than regular ceramic and very easy to cut to shape. The off-cuts can be used as shelf supports. Its high heat-resistance and low thermal-mass make heating and cooling faster, so it's ideal for glass and ceramic kilns.

THE PARAGON TNF2822

CERAMICS, GLASS, PORCELAIN, POTTERY, AND RAKU
Paragon TNF27-3 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Porcelain, Pottery, And Raku. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.

The Paragon TNF2822 TNF27-3 Kiln For Annealing, Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Heat-Treating, Knife-Making, Porcelain, Pottery, And Stoneware.

The Paragon TNF2822 is a 1290°C cone 10, twelve-sided, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry 12-key programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The US TNF2822 is about 28 inches across and 22 inches high inside. In the US, it's called the TNF27-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick, although it's not 27 inches anywhere and all the TNF kilns have 3 inch bricks. So, for clarity within the TNF series, it should have been called the TNF2822?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 11500W, so it needs a 48A minimum wired-in power supply. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a UK-EU legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 922mm x 1265mm x 1016mm. The body has four lifting handles and two wide-view peepholes in one of the sides. The lid has two lifting handles, an easy-lift spring-balanced hinge, and a stay-open support. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 227Kg.

The firing chamber is 711mm x 565mm high, and heats from the sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. It has three electro-mechanical relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The metal table, shown in the second photo, is 812mm x 812mm x 305mm high and has lockable casters, a top shelf with a cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with low-fire ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch: factory fitted
List a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

Reviews And Opinions.

The Paragon TNF2822 is a 1290°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, porcelian, pottery, raku, or glass studio. At 11500W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the elements age or the local voltage drops. It's large enough for 650mm diameter bowls and plates and 510mm high pots and vases.


It normally has an enhanced Sentry 12-key programmer. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 10, will simplify your work with ceramics.

Alternatively, you can choose an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.


The firebrick body is in two sections that clip together so it's easy to replace the bricks or elements. The clip-on firebrick base, which sits in a steel pan, is reversible so, if you do have a glass accident, you won't have to buy a new set of bricks.


The control box is hinged at the bottom and drops down for easy access and maintenance. A folding support holds the box open.


The metal table has lockable casters so the kiln can be moved easily, a cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a lower shelf for your accessories, materials, and work.


The TNF2822, the Janus 2822, and the Viking 2822 look similar and are the same size. The TNF2822 is a 1290°C 11500W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer and side elements. The Janus 2822 is a 1290°C 11520W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, lid and side elements, and a ceramics-glass switch: for ceramics try all the side elements and for glass try the top and middle elements. The Viking 2822 is a 1290°C 14400W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, internal fuses, silent long-life mercury relays, and graded side elements for better heat distribution. If you prefer a front-opening kiln, look at the Janus 24.

THE PARAGON TNF2822 KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The TNF2822. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

Shelf Kits For The Paragon TNF 2822 And TNF 27-3.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, not included in the price: two half-round 660mm x 18mm cordierite shelves, six 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. One full-size shelf would be heavy to put in, move, and take out.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: two half-round 660mm x 18mm shelves and six shelf posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, or 150mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want extra kits. This kiln has room for four.

Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted clay, glass, or metal will ruin the firebricks.


However, there is an alternative: a 600mm x 600mm x 50mm 1430°C rigidised ceramic-fibre rectangle. It's much lighter than regular ceramic and very easy to cut to shape. The off-cuts can be used as shelf supports. Its high heat-resistance and low thermal-mass make heating and cooling faster, so it's ideal for glass and ceramic kilns.

THE PARAGON TNF2829

LOW-FIRE CERAMICS, EARTHENWARE, GLASS, POTTERY, AND RAKU
Paragon TNF28-3 Kiln With A Sentry Programmer For Annealing, Ceramics, Glass, Pottery, And Raku. Paragon Rolling Stand With Casters. Paragon Blue Or Customised Berry, Black, Jade, Navy, Pink, Purple, Or Turquoise. Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.

The Paragon TNF2829 TNF28-3 Kiln For Annealing, Low-Fire Ceramics, Earthenware, Glass, Heat-Treating, Knife-Making, Pottery, And Stoneware.

The Paragon TNF2829 is an 1175°C cone 4, twelve-sided, top-opening, floor-standing, firebrick kiln, with a cone-fire ramp-hold Sentry 12-key programmer. Choose Paragon blue or customised berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise.


Paragon uses inches, not mm. The US TNF2829 is about 28 inches across and 29 inches high inside. In the US, it's called the TNF28-3 as the firebricks are 3 inches thick, although all the TNF kilns have 3 inch bricks. So, for clarity within the TNF series, it should have been called the TNF2829?


The UK-EU kiln is rated at 230V-240V 10800W, so it needs a 45A minimum wired-in power supply. It's fitted with a switch that cuts off power to the elements when the kiln is opened: a UK-EU legal safety requirement. However, never get careless: kilns are very hot and connected to the mains.

The external dimensions are 922mm x 1156mm x 1219mm. The body has six lifting handles and three wide-view peepholes in one of the sides. The lid has two lifting handles, an easy-lift spring-balanced hinge, and a stay-open support. The shipping weight, including the crate, is about 227Kg.

The firing chamber is 737mm x 711mm high, and heats from the sides, with the elements in dropped recessed grooves in the 76mm thick bricks. It has three electro-mechanical relays and a long-life nickel-chromium K-type thermocouple.

The top row of bricks doesn't have an element groove, so the firing chamber is stronger around the top edge where the lid closes. In addition, the two meeting surfaces are hardened and sealed with refractory cement.

The metal table, shown in the second photo, is 812mm x 812mm x 305mm high and has lockable casters, a top shelf with a cut-out for an optional electric kiln vent, and a bottom shelf for drying greenware or keeping accessories, materials, and tools. It replaces the earlier stand, shown in the first photo.

The programmer's electronic display prompts for heating rates, target temperatures, and hold times, making it easy to set up and re-use accurate heating, holding, and cooling sequences. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 4, will simplify your work with low-fire ceramics.


The accessories, options, and upgrades for this kiln are in the on-line shop:

List a berry, black, jade, navy, pink, purple, or turquoise control boxes respray: normally blue
List. a programmer upgrade: Sentry 12-key to a Sentinel Touch: more useful features: factory fitted
List a gas injection flow meter with a controlling solenoid: factory fitted
List an electric kiln vent: factory fitted
List an auxiliary power output for automatic vent control: factory fitted
List a USB computer interface: factory fitted
List a long-life mercury relay upgrade: factory fitted
List a long-life S-type platinum-rhodium thermocouple upgrade: factory fitted
List stacking shelf kits and shelf paper
List ceramic fibre cloth
List ceramic block
List HEPA dust mask
List clear protective glasses
List glare-resistant glasses
List heat-resistant gloves

EXTRACTS FROM REVIEWS, AND MY OPINION

Reviews And Opinions.

The Paragon TNF2829 is an 1175°C kiln, made for years of continual firing so it's ideal for a ceramics, pottery, raku, or glass studio. At 11800W it heats quickly and will reach its maximum temperature easily even if the elements age or the local voltage drops.


It normally has an enhanced Sentry 12-key programmer. Features include thirty-five free-to-set sequences, each one with up to twenty segments, and automatic control over hardware options: an electric kiln vent, a gas injection system, and a USB computer interface. The cone-fire mode, up to cone 4, will simplify your work with low-fire ceramics.

Alternatively, you can choose an advanced touch-screen Sentinel Smart Touch. Features include those of the Sentry 12-key and real time displays of voltage and current, a novice mode with prompts, firing sequences presented graphically, and wifi connectivity and updates: so a functional upgrade not just a design preference.


The firebrick body is in three sections that clip together so it's easy to replace the bricks or elements. The clip-on firebrick base, which sits in a steel pan, is reversible so, if you do have a glass accident, you won't have to buy a new set of bricks.


The control box is hinged at the bottom and drops down for easy access and maintenance. A folding support holds the box open.


The TNF2829 and the Viking 2829 look similar and are the same size. The TNF2829 is an 1175°C 11500W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer and side elements. The Viking 2829 is a 1290°C 14400W kiln with a Sentry 12-key programmer, internal fuses, silent long-life mercury relays, and graded side elements for better heat distribution.

THE PARAGON TNF2829 KILN FURNITURE
Paragon Shelf Furniture For The TNF2829. Stainless Steel Pans for Activated Charcoal: 1 litre or 3 litres. Activated Charcoal: Coal or Coconut. Lost Wax Burnout, Casting, And Enamelling Tray.

The Paragon TNF2829 TNF28-3 Kiln Furniture.

The US-international kiln doesn't come with a shelf or posts or kiln wash. However, there's a recommended kit, not included in the price: two half-round 660mm x 18mm cordierite shelves, six 12mm shelf posts, and 450gm of kiln wash. One full-size shelf would be heavy to put in, move, and take out.

There's an extra recommended kit, not included in the price: two half-round 660mm x 18mm shelves and six shelf posts. You can choose 12mm, 25mm, 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, or 150mm posts.

Depending on the material or process, and the sizes of your pieces, stacked shelves will hold more work, free up your time, and reduce the unit firing cost: so you might want extra kits. This kiln has room for four.

Whatever you choose, don't work directly on the floor of the firing chamber as any accidentally melted clay, glass, or metal will ruin the firebricks.


However, there is an alternative: a 600mm x 600mm x 50mm 1430°C rigidised ceramic-fibre rectangle. It's much lighter than regular ceramic and very easy to cut to shape. The off-cuts can be used as shelf supports. Its high heat-resistance and low thermal-mass make heating and cooling faster, so it's ideal for glass and ceramic kilns.

RECOMMENDED READING
General Help and FAQs For Kilns. Paragon Kiln Shelf Kit. Paragon Relay. Paragon Transformer.

Kilns, Digital Programmers, Kiln Furniture, Options, Upgrades, Firing, Kiln Logs, Accessories, Materials, Parts, Processes, Repairs, And Tools.

The remaining sections are recommended reading, unless you're already using kilns successfully.


Cherry Heaven has been a Paragon distributor since 2002, and commended every year for outstanding performance. Paragon kilns are good value: buy Paragons and you could save enough to treat yourself to a luxury five-star weekend break.

Anyone can buy a kiln to resell and call themselves a specialist, but a top-tier distributor understands all the kilns, options, and upgrades, will stock spares, offers free competent technical support, can help you repair your kiln, provides on-line repair videos, has a repair workshop, and can access Paragon's extensive knowledge-base.

If you need help, you can mail an experienced technician or call . Alternatively, to learn more about how your kiln works, use the help link below the menu bar near the top of the page.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO CLAYS

Natural Clay.

What Is Clay?

Clays are formed naturally over millions of years as rocks break up into minute particles. They consist of hydrous aluminium silicates and other compounds such as feldspar, iron oxides, mica, and quartz. Clays are collectively referred to as ceramics.

Clays are often divided into three main categories: earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware. Generally, they needs to be fired for several hours, although the exact chemical composition affects the firing temperatures and times, and the clays' colour, porosity, shrinkage, and strength.

All clays are created to mature at specific temperatures, and any variance can lead to unsatisfactory results in ceramic durability or color. If fired too high, clay can deform or even melt; if fired too low, your pieces will be dry, rough, and potentially unsolidified.

Historically, low-fire has been the most commonly used firing range due to limitations in kiln technology. Modern kilns are now capable of much more complex, high-temperature processes, but low-fire range continues to be popular because it allows ceramic artists to use a variety of colourants that either burn off or become unstable at higher temperatures.

The maximum cone rating of a stoneware or porcelain clay is the temperature at which it vitrifies. This is the hardening, tightening and finally the partial glassification of the clay. Vitrification results from fusions or melting of the various components of the clay. The strength of fired clay is increased by the formation of new crystalline growth within the clay body, particularly the growth of mullite crystals. Mullite is an aluminum silicate characterized by a long needle-like crystal. These lace the structure together, giving it cohesion and strength.

When clay vitrifies it gets very strong. This is especially important for dinnerware where pieces are exposed to a lot of abuse. Vitrification also makes the clay's porosity low.

EARTHENWARE, PORCELAIN, AND STONEWARE

Earthenware Flower Pot.

What Are Earthenware, Porcelain, And Stoneware?

Earthenware is normally beige, red, or white. It has the lowest firing temperature of the three, usually lower than 1150°C. It's slightly porous, and stains and chips easily, so it's often glazed to protect the surface. Its porosity means it's good for making terracotta planters and oven steamers, but not good for jugs or vases.


Porcelain is composed of kaolin, or china clay. Kaolin doesn't melt until 1800°C, so other compounds are usually added so it can be fired between 1250°C and 1400°C. For example, bone china is made by adding bone ash to the clay. It's known for its whiteness, hardness, smoothness, durability, and translucency. When tapped, it makes a distinctive ping: or ming.

Named after a hill in China from which it was mined for centuries, kaolin is the purest form of clay and is the foundation of all porcelain clay bodies. Though pure kaolin clays can be fired, often they are mixed with other clays to increase both workability and lower the firing temperature, so if using a kaolin-based clay body, be sure to note how pure your material is, as this will change the required temperature.

As a clay body, porcelain is known for its hardness, extremely tight density, whiteness, and translucence in thin-walled pieces. Another difficulty with porcelain bodies is that they are very prone to warping during drying in the kiln

When fired, porcelain becomes a hard, vitrified, non-absorbent clay body, very similar to high-fire stoneware. It also develops a body-glaze layer formed between the clay body and the glaze. The absence of any iron, alkalies, or alkaline earths in the molecular structure of kaolin not only dictate its high-fire requirements, but are also responsible for its most identifiable characteristic: its white color.


Stoneware is normally beige, grey, or red-brown. It's usually fired between 1150°C and 1300°C. It's hard, durable, and resists thermal shock. Glazes bond well, so it can be made waterproof.


Stoneware is a plastic clay, often grey when moist. Getting its name from the dense, rock-like nature of the clay body when fired, stoneware is typically combined with other clays to modify it, such as ball clays which might be added for plasticity. It is important to note that stoneware is divided into two types: mid-fire and high-fire.

Like low-fire bodies, mid-range stoneware is relatively soft and porous and has a clearly separate glaze layer after firing. However, a mid-range firing results in increased durability of the ware as well. When fired, stoneware ranges in color from light grey to buff, to medium grey and brown.

Mid-range glazes typically mature between Cone 4 and Cone 6, and most commercial underglazes have a maximum temperature of Cone 6. These glazes are more durable, still offer a fairly extensive color range, and though not quite as harsh as low-fire glazes, can still be quite bright.

BISQUE

Bisque.

What Is Bisque?

Bisque is clay which has been fired once, without a glaze, to a temperature just before vitrification. Firing changes the clay into ceramic material, without fully fusing it. A second, slower, firing melts the glaze and fuses it to the clay body.

BONE CHINA

Royal Victoria Bone China Cup And Saucer. Wedgewood White Dinner Set. Rose Bouquet Dessert Plates. Royal Albert Bone China Tea Set.

What Is Bone China?

Bone china is a type of porcelain composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, and kaolin. It's the strongest of the porcelain or china ceramics, having very high mechanical and physical strength and chip resistance, and is known for its high levels of whiteness and translucency. Its high strength allows it to be produced in thinner cross-sections than other types of porcelain.

From its initial development and up to the latter part of the 20th century, bone china was almost exclusively English, with production being effectively localised in Stoke-on-Trent. Most major English firms made or still make it, including Fortnum & Mason, Mintons, Coalport, Spode, Royal Crown Derby, Royal Doulton, Wedgwood, and Worcester.

In the UK, references to china or porcelain can refer to bone china, and English Porcelain has been used as a term for it, both in the UK and around the world.

POLYMER CLAY

Polymer Clay Flowers By Olga Zhukova. Polymer Clay Key Rings. Polymer Clay Beads By LiasonWithAlison. Polymer Clay Necklace By Facet Jewellery.

What Is Polymer Clay?

Polymer clay is a man-made material: tiny particles of polyvinyl chloride mixed with plasticisers and pigments. When it's baked, at around 125°C, the particles fuse and the clay hardens.

RAKU

Raku By Lori Duncan. Raku By Brian Seckinger. Raku By Greenwich Community College. Raku By Soley Ceramics.

What Is Raku?

Raku was originally a Japanese technique, but it's now become an internationally popular way to make decorative ware, with each piece having a unique blend of colours.

A bisque piece is fired to about 950°C, then glazed. It's removed from the kiln when red-hot, and put straight into a container of combustible material.

The flames, reducing atmosphere, and mix of chemicals stain the clay. When the piece is removed and quenched in cold water, interesting colours and shades remain: often unpredictable.

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO GLASS AND GEMS

Obsidian. Fish. Curved Glass by Infabbrica. Lauscha By Carrie Fertig.

What Is Glass?

The main component of glass is silicon dioxide, often called silica: found naturally and plentifully as sand. When it melts, at around 1700°C, it's like syrup on a cold day. When it cools, it forms a rigid brittle glass called quartz glass.

To lower the melting point, and reduce the cost of melting, chemicals are added: typically sodium carbonate and calcium oxide. Other chemicals, and different heating and cooling processes, produce a range of colours and mechanical properties.

Chemically, glass is defined as an amorphous solid but, as it's heated, it becomes softer allowing it to be blown, cast, coated, decorated, engraved, heat-treated, moulded, poured, pressed, sagged, and slumped.

A form of glass occurs naturally within the mouth of a volcano when the intense heat of an eruption melts sand to form Obsidian, a hard black-to-brown glassy type of stone, shown in the photo. Although it was used decoratively, when it fractures it has very sharp edges, many times sharper than a steel knife-edge, so was also used for tools and weapons: and the pitiful rituals of circumcision and female genital mutilation.

ANNEALING
Annealed Beads Made Into A Necklace.

What Is Annealing?

During annealing, fabrication stresses are relieved as the molecules cool and arrange themselves into a regular stable matrix. Successful annealing is the key to creating glasswork that will remain attractive and durable. It's quite a long process, so a kiln with an automatic comprehensive programmer is essential.

FREE BEAD ANNEALING GUIDE

A Bead Annealing Guide.

You can download, and print, a Bead Annealing Guide. Paragon created it in 2013 so it's only a guide, not a contemporary definitive document. Click here. It's a pdf file, but your device should already have a pdf viewer.

CUBIC ZIRCONIA
Cubic Zirconia.

What Are Cubic Zirconia.

Cubic Zirconia is the most popular substitute for a diamond because they look almost dentical. Cubic Zirconia or CZ, is made from zirconium dioxide which comes closer than any other gem to matching the characteristics of a diamond. It's not quite as hard as diamond and is slightly less sparkly but displays more prismatic fire with more colour sparkles within the gem, especially if metal oxides are added during the production process.

Caring for CZ is important because they are more brittle than diamonds and susceptible to wear and tear such as chipping and scratches over time.

DIAMONDS
Diamond.

What Are Diamonds?

Diamonds are not a form of glass: they're naturally occurring gems composed of carbon atoms arranged in a very regular pattern.

Between 1 billion to 3.3 billion years ago, simple carbon containing trace minerals was transformed into diamonds by heat and pressure at depths of over 100 miles below the earth’s surface. We can’t mine down far enough to reach the earth’s mantle but fortunately volcanic eruptions brought the diamonds closer to the surface. They're extremely hard and until recently were regarded as the world's hardest natural material.

Although diamonds are extremely expensive, their price is governed by carat, cut, colour, and clarity. It’s very rare to find a diamond that doesn’t contain flaws: however the impurities, and internal refraction and dispersion of light, give diamonds their brilliance.


Synthetic diamonds are manufactured and are identical in hardness, dispersion, gravity, refraction and chemical composition to the highest quality mined diamonds available. Whereas a one-carat top quality diamond would cost thousands of pounds to buy, the same quality man-made diamond could be made for less than £5.

This will obviously have a huge impact on the diamond industry over the next few years as when comparing a cultured and mined diamond side by side they are virtually undistinguishable. A bit like pearls, they can be grown from a single crystal using chemical vapor deposition.

DICHROIC GLASS
Dichroic Glass.

What Are Dichroic Glasses.

Dichroic glass has two different colours: a transmitted colour and a reflective colour, both of which change depending on the angle of view. For example blue-red will be blue in transmission and red in reflection.

During manufacture, quartz and metal oxides are vapourised onto the surface of the glass using a vacuum deposition process, forming a multi-layer crystal structure.

ENAMELLING
Enamelled Jewellery.

What Is Enamelling?

Enamelling involves applying a glass paste to metal and then heating it to fuse it to the surface. The finish of the enamel can be translucent or opaque depending on the temperature used to melt the glass. Higher temperatures result in a more transparent and durable enamel whilst lower temperatures give a more opaque and fragile surface. Dyes and pigments can be included to produce any colour.

The Paragon SC2 is ideal for enamelling, although other kilns are fine. So click the sc2-sc3:jewellery link below the menu bar near the top of the page. The SC-2W and SC-3W doors include a 50mm x 50mm heat-resistant glass viewing-window in the centre of the door, allowing you to take a quick peep at china paints, enamels, glass, and glazes to check on their progress

FIRE POLISHING
Fire Polished Glass.

What Is Fire Polishing?

To fire polish glass, return the items to the kiln and melt them just enough to give a smooth polished appearance. It needs a temperature of around 700°C, and is often used to round the edges of glass after fusing.

Fire polishing already-slumped items is more difficult because the polishing temperature is close to the slumping temperature and it can distort the appearance of the piece. So it generally works best for flat items, rather than slumped ones. It has the slight limitation that the part of the item that touches the kiln shelf won't polish.

FUSING, SAGGING, AND SLUMPING
Fused Glass.

What Is Glass Fusing?

If two or more pieces of glass in contact are heated, they begin to soften and fuse together. With careful heating and cooling, the separate pieces of glass become one.

If glass is put on a mould and heated, it begins to soften and collapse, or sag, onto the mould: a common technique for making bowls and plates.

Sagging and slumping are often thought of as being the same. Correctly: during sagging, heated glass, supported at its edges, sags down in the middle to conform to a mould; during slumping, heated glass, supported at its middle, slumps down at its edges to conform to a mould.

LAMPWORK AND BEADS
Beads.

What Is Lampwork?

Lamp-working is the traditional name for glasswork that uses a flame to melt glass rods and tubes. As the glass softens, it's shaped by turning and using tools.

Early lampworkers used an oil-lamp, and blew air into the flame through a pipe. Later, propane, natural gas, or butane torches replaced the lamp, although kilns are now increasingly popular, particularly for annealing.

Beads are usually made on steel rods, or mandrels. When the beads are finished, the rods are removed leaving holes for threading the beads. Cold working techniques can be used, such as etching, faceting, polishing, and sandblasting.

LOST-WAX BURNOUT
Paragon W13 Lost Wax Casting Kiln With A Sentry Programmer.

What Is Lost Wax Casting?

Lost-wax burnout starts with making a wax shape and then making a mould of the shape. When the mould is heated in a kiln, the wax melts out through channels, usually over a burnout mesh and into a tray. The shape is then cast in glass or metal from the mould.

It's important to prevent wax or carbon sticking to the elements, so burnout kilns have a top vent to release fumes. Carbon build-up inside a kiln could conduct electricity and would eventually cause the elements to fail.

Paragon make kilns designed for this: the W series. So click the w:lost-wax link under the menu bar near the top of the page. They all have top vents and optional wax trays.

MOISSANITE
Moissanite.

What Is Moissanite.

Moissanite is another diamond substitute which is a rare mineral found naturally in small quantities, although Moissanite for jewellery is artificially made. It’s made from Silicon Carbide which means it’s able to withstand high temperatures and is very hard.

Moissanite is noticeably much sparklier and displays more prismatic fire than a diamond which is noticeable even to an untrained observer. Moissanite does have inclusions like a diamond and it may also have a greenish tinge to its colour.

PÂTE DE VERRE
Pâte De Verre.

What Is Pâte De Verre?

Pâte de verre involves making a glass paste, applying it to a mould, firing it, and removing the piece from the mould. The glass paste is usually made from glass powder, a binder such as gum arabic, distilled water, and colouring agents or enamels. It allows precise placing of colours in the mould, whereas other techniques often result in the glass straying from its intended position.

I think, currently, Daum is the only large commercial crystal manufacturer using the pâte de verre process for art glass and crystal sculptures.

SLUMPING BOTTLES
Slumped Bottle.

What Is Glass Slumping?

This a simple technique but it requires good ideas. A bottle, such as those used for wine, beer, cola, or champagne, is softened in a kiln so that it begins to flatten out or conforms to a mould. There are too many moulds to stock here but there are lots available on line. Or make your own from clay.

The bottles need to be clean and dry, with all paper labels and tops removed. Put them in your kiln on a shelf, either with shelf paper or kiln wash to prevent the glass sticking to the shelf.

Paragon makes a kiln designed for this: the Trio. So click the trio link below the menu bar near the top of the page. It's wide enough for most bottles but can still use a regular socket.

STAINED GLASS
Stained Glass.

What Is Stained Glass?

Stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, traditionally held together by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design.

The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln.

It requires artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the Late Middle Ages.

SWAROVSKI CRYSTAL
Swarovski Crystal.

What Is Swarovski Crystal?

Swarovski Crystal isn’t a gemstone or even a crystal: it’s a form of glass made at high temperatures by melting silicon oxide powders with lead to form what is known as lead crystal. The exact process is patented by Swarovski but it has approximately 32% lead content to increase the crystals refraction index to resemble that of a diamond. To produce a diamond like effect the crystal glass is precision cut and then polished again by a Swarovski patented process that gives the crystal a high quality finish.

The crystals are often further enhanced by coating the glass with an Aurora Borealis or AB coating that gives the surface a rainbow like appearance to simulate dispersion from a diamond. Swarovski crystal is not as hard as diamond so its susceptible to scratches and chipping from wear and tear, but it’s harder than standard glass.

TACK FUSING
Tack Fused Glass.

What Is Tack Fusing?

Tack fusing is the joining together of glass, with as little change to the shape of the pieces as possible. Tack fusing may be used either decoratively, or to assemble a large piece of glass from laminations.

Where tack fusing is used to apply small decorative details to a larger piece, you might want to partially melt the small pieces so that they change shape, usually becoming more spherical under the influence of surface tension, but without changing the shape of the carrier piece. This can be done by using an increased temperature, but only briefly. The carrier piece has a larger thermal mass, so heats up more slowly than the small decorations.

VITRIGRAPH WORK
Glass Stringers.

What Is Vitrigraph?

The vitrigraph process usually uses a kiln to make glass stringers. The bottom of the kiln is removed and set aside. The kiln body is put on a thick ceramic square with a central hole.

A crucible of glass is put inside, and the whole combination lifted well away from the floor to allow moulten glass to fall through a hole in the crucible and form long stringers. Ceramic squares are in the on-line shop.

Paragon make a kiln designed for this: the Caldera. So click the caldera:ceramics link below the menu bar near the top of the page. The bottom is a separate part and can be unclipped.

WARM GLASS
Warm Glass Flower Bowl.

What Is Warm Glass?

The term warm glass refers to fusing, slumping, and other glass processes which take place at temperatures between about 600°C to 925°C. Although that doesn't sound warm, it is when you compare it to glassblower's working temperatures, which often exceed 1100°C. Warm glass is sometimes called kiln-formed glass.

AN ELECTRIC VENT FOR KILNS

Orton-Paragon Kiln VentMaster: Unassembled. Orton-Paragon Oven Vent Outlet. Orton-Paragon Kiln Fan Motor Unit. Orton-Paragon Kiln Auxiliary Power Socket.

The Orton-Paragon Vent Master Kiln Vent.

A Paragon-Orton Vent Master removes airborn pollutants straight away and redirects them to the outside through a flexi-pipe. The kilns can be factory-readied, so the vent just needs on-site assembly. It's on-off times can be controlled by the programmer.

Refreshing the air in a kiln minimises surface blemishes when firing clays, ensures brighter colours when firing glasses, prevents colour contamination when firing different glazes, and removes pollutants when heat-treating metals.

The vent motor isn't so powerful that the heat-up time and maximum temperature are reduced, but the cooling time is, depending on the size of the kiln.


The UK-EU vent motor is rated at 230V-240V 132W, so it can use a regular mains socket. The suction cup, in the second photo, and pipe are attached to the kiln but the motor can be remote: it doesn't get hot and the fan is easy to clean.

There's always a small gap, for expansion, around any kiln door or lid, so enough new air can be drawn in to replace the old air being drawn out. However, peepholes act as straight-through cold-air inlets: so you might not want them or block them with some ceramic cloth?

The vent can be turned on and off manually. Alternatively, if the kiln has a Sentry or a Sentinel programmer, the vent can be plugged into the kiln's auxiliary power outlet and controlled by the programmer. The power outlet, in the fourth photo, has to be fitted during manufacture: so decide before you order.


As with Paragon kilns, Orton Vent Masters can be re-engineered for any electrical system. They conform to the demanding 1992 Uniform Mechanical Code and the UL standard, and are CE Marked for the EU. They have a two year limited warranty.

A GAS INLET FLOW METER FOR KILNS

Paragon Gas Inlet Flow Meter.

The Paragon Gas Inlet Flow Meter.

Users interested in gas injection are usually blade-makers. There are so many variables that there isn't a comprehensive set of instructions but I've put together enough to get you started if you're a novice.


During heat treating, oxygen forms a scale on the surface of knife blades, metals, and tools. To minimise this, the parts can either be wrapped in heat-treating foil or an inert gas can be injected into the furnace to displace the oxygen.

Most professional knife makers use gas injection for precise control and to save time. If you have a Sentry or a Sentinel programmer, a solenoid kit can automatically turn the gas on or off for each segment of the firing: just programme the controller to turn on the gas at the temperature where scale begins to form on the steel.


The factory-fitted gas injection and flow meter provided is a standard meter from Dwyer calibrated from 1 SCFH to 20 SCFH: SCFH is Standard Cubic Feet per Hour. The user is responsible for providing a source of gas at low pressure, less than 20 PSIG, to a 1/4" NPT female pipe fitting. A pressure regulator may be required to reduce the high pressure in bottled gas to a usable range. This is usually bought with the gas tank: it's not part of this Paragon option.

The Dwyer flow meter is for use on furnaces with internal volumes of 0.2 cubic feet to 27 cubic feet and, therefore, the setting of the flow meter will depend on the size of furnace or the amount of gas required to create a chemical reaction.

If the furnace is 0.2 cubic feet in volume and the flow meter is set on 1 SCFH, the atmosphere of the furnace will be changed 5 times per hour at room temperature: every 12 minutes. If, however, the furnace is over 1000F, the room temperature gas will expand to over ten times its volume when it's injected into the hot firing chamber. This equates to changing the atmosphere of a 0.2 cubic foot furnace at the rate of 50 times per hour: every 1.2 minutes.

It's up to the user to define how pure the atmosphere is required and adjust the flow rate accordingly. Typically, this will require several test samples to fine tune the atmosphere.


Furnaces aren't completely air-tight and gas will leak out around the door, and through the firebricks and metal seams, so you need a steady flow of gas. Gas at room temperature will expand to over twenty times its volume when injected into a firing chamber at 550°C, so a low setting on the flow meter is adequate to prevent most scaling.

Depending on how you work, gas injection might reduce the life of the heating elements slightly. However, they're easy and inexpensive to replace. If your business depends on continual kiln time, buying a spare set of elements would be sensible.

Argon gas is popular for heat treating because it's inexpensive. But, it's heavier than air and breathing it in won't keep you alive. so your workshop must be well ventilated.

A USB INTERFACE WITH WINDOWS SOFTWARE FOR KILNS

Paragon USB Interface.

The Paragon USB Interface With Windows Software.

A factory-fitted USB interface provides a USB socket on the kiln that connects a Sentry or Sentinel programmer to a Windows computer. You can monitor the firing sequences, save them, and print out the results, making it easier to keep a record of firings: successful and unsuccessful. If you prefer, you can have an RS232 interface.


The Universal Serial Bus, USB, is a simple plug-and-play digital connection between a computer and most of it's peripherals, designed to replace all the old plugs, sockets, cables, and expansion interfaces. Up to 127 fast-access devices can be set up automatically and hot-swapped without turning the computer off.

Universal means it's an internationally agreed standard. A bus is the computer's two-way connection which carries data between the processor, the drive, the memory, and the peripherals. Serial means that data is sent one bit after another, as a data stream.
As an analogy, a road bus carries passengers between work, home, and the shops. And a tee-vee serial shows the episodes one after another, in the right sequence.

PARAGON KILNS INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTOR

KILNS, OVENS, FURNACES, PARTS, AND SUPPORT
Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer PCB. Paragon Type-K Thermocouple. Paragon Relay. Paragon Shelf Kit.

Paragon Kilns, Furnaces, and Ovens For Annealing, Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Glass, Jewellery, Knife Making, Lost Wax, Silver Clays, Heat Treating, Lampwork, Porcelain, And Vitrigraph.

is a Cherry Heaven internet resource. Cherry Heaven is a top-tier international distributor for Texas-made Paragon kilns, furnaces, ovens, and accessories, and has been one of their top-selling partners from 2006 to : a pleasing outcome since the UK is only one third the area of Texas and one fortieth the area of the US.

As this is an on-line resource, there isn't a paper catalogue or a price list. However, you can mail or call a technician about kilns, power supplies, public area safety, a special project, business ideas, diagnostics, repairs, or reselling opportunities.


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UK To EU Plug Adapter.
Ceramic Block.
Ceramic Cloth.
EU Plug.
UK-EU Adapter.
Dry Powder Extinguisher.
Glare Resistant Glasses.
HEPA Mask.
heat-resistant Gloves.
Kitiki Cutters.
Kitiki Flush Cutters.
Kitiki Flat-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Pointed-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Bent-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Round-Nose Pliers.
Protective Glasses.
Potter & Brumfield Relay.
Dorset, SW England.
UK 13A Plug.
Large Rubber Drum 950gm Open
The AX-4 Digital Controller.
MiniKiln Closed.
Bartlett-Paragon Touch Screen Digital Controller.
Paragon BlueBird Bead Annealing Kiln.
Lauscha by Carrie Fertig.
Activated Charcoal Granules.
Paragon Caldera Ceramics And Glass Kiln.
Paragon Caldera Bead, Enamels, And Glass Kiln.
Paragon Crucible.
Paragon Fusion CS14D Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion CS14SB Glass And Bead Kiln.
Paragon Caldera XL Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon F500 Lampwork Kiln.
Paragon FireFly Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 7 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 8 Glass Kiln.
Paragon GL18ADTSD Glass Kiln.
Paragon HT-14D Heat Treating Furnace.
Paragon Janus 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon KM18D Knife Making Oven.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Unassembled.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Suction Cup.
Paragon Pearl 18 Glass Kiln.
Paragon PMT21 Heat Treating Kiln.
Paragon Door Peephole And Vent.
Stainless Steel Pans.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2B Bead-Door Kiln.
Paragon SC2W Enamelling Kiln.
Paragon SC4 Glass Kiln.
Paragon SC2BW Jewellery And Bead Kiln.
Paragon SC2D Pro-3 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Shelf Kit.
Paragon SC-2 Jade Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.
Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch-Screen Controller.
Paragon SC-2 Pink Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Pro Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Turqoise Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Purple Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Navy Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Berry Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon ST-8 Kiln Table.
Paragon Kiln Table With Casters.
Paragon TNF 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon GL24 Kiln Table.
Paragon Xpress 1613 Top Row Of Bricks.
Paragon W Lost-Wax Casting Kiln.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray With Grille.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray With Grid.
USB Plug.
Paragon Xpress E-12 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-12B Bead Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-14 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Xpress Q-11 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Vitrigraph Kiln.
Prometheus Pro-7.