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Paragon Sentry Xpress 3-Key Digital Programmer
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The Paragon Sentry Xpress And Sentry Cone-Fire Ramp-Hold Programmers.

Paragon's digital kilns use a 3-key Sentry Xpress or a 12-key Sentry digital programmer, developed by the Orton Ceramic Foundation and Paragon. Or a Sentinel Smart Touch digital programmer developed by Bartlett and Paragon. All three are made as ramp-hold, or cone-fire and ramp-hold. Your kiln will come with an appropriate programmer although, if it has a 3-key ramp-hold, you can upgrade to a cone-fire and ramp-hold, Or you can generally ugrade from a 3-key to a 12-key, or from a 12-key to a touch-screen.

Generally, the programmers on enamelling, glass, jewellery, and metal clay kilns have one firing mode: ramp-hold. And the programmers on ceramics, earthenware, porcelain, and stoneware kilns have two firing modes: cone-fire and ramp-hold. However, as many kilns can fire a wide range of materials, there's bound to be some cross-over.

Although it's convenient and time-saving to have an automatic digital programmer, remember that you should monitor the kiln occasionally during firing, especially near the expected shut-off.

PROGRAMMERS: PHOTOS

The Sentry Xpress And Sentry Cone-Fire And Ramp-Hold Programmers.

To look at the pop-up photos, hold your mouse over the zoom buttons below: you don't need to click.


Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress 3-Key Programmer.

Orton-Paragon Sentry Orton-Paragon Sentry 12-Key Programmer.

Orton-Paragon Sentinel Smart Touch Controller Orton-Paragon Sentinel Smart Touch Programmer.

RAMP HOLD

Ramp Hold.

The programmer runs a programme that you have set, or one that is in its memory from a previous firing. It's a sequence of ramps and holds. Currently we fire Art Clay Silver using one ramp and one hold: it heats to 800°C at full speed then holds for 30 minutes. The sequence then ends, the kiln beeps, and cools in it's own time.

A ramp segment of a sequence controls the rate of heating or cooling. For example, the kiln can heat up at 200°C per hour from 200°C to 800°C, which would take three hours. Or, the kiln can cool down at 100°C per hour from 600°C to 200°C, which would take four hours.

The heating rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would heat up if it was full on. The cooling rate cannot exceed the rate at which the kiln would cool if it was turned off. At full speed the elements are on all the time. During set ramps and holds they turn on and off repeatedly to maintain the heating or cooling rate.

The programmer is easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a ramp-hold sequence. The ramp is the part where the temperature increases until it reaches the target temperature: the hold is the part where the temperature stays the same. Of course, UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line radio and television programmes on the Cherry Heaven Player. To play or pause the player, click the controls or, whilst it's playing, drag the time-line slider or volume slider to a new position.


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If the kiln you've chosen has a Sentry 12-key programmer, or you're considering an upgrade, here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a ramp-hold sequence.


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CONE FIRE

Cone Fire.

Cone-fire is simple: just enter the cone number. Although they're a great time-saver, you'll learn more about firing if you sometimes use ramp-hold: each segment of a sequence can have a heating rate, target temperature, and hold time. It's easier to adjust sequences, add segments, experiment, and copy published sequences for materials that may need stepped heating or cooling.

The programmer is easy to use: far easier than a central heating programmer. Here's a Cherry Heaven TV programme about setting a cone-fire sequence. Setting a cone number means that the programmer will run a sequence of segments automatically. Of course, UK-EU programmers will be in degrees Celsius.


00:00  00:00

Cherry Heaven TV provides on-line radio and television programmes using the Cherry Heaven Player. To play, pause, or stop the player, or adjust the volume, click the controls or, whilst it's playing, drag the time-line slider to a new position.

THE SENTRY XPRESS 3-KEY DIGITAL CONTROLLER: RAMP-HOLD
The Paragon-Orton Sentry Xpress 3-Key Programmer

The Sentry Xpress.

Generally, this ramp-hold programmer is used on smaller kilns, such as the BlueBird and SC-2. You can set up, and re-use, four sequences of up to eight heating, holding, and cooling segments: and do something else whilst the sequence is running. Ramp-hold also allows you to programme slow cooling: useful, for example, for annealing or controlling the colours of ceramic glazes.

Paragon programmers do not have pre-set ramp-hold programmes: you can easily set up and re-use your own. Pre-set fixed programmes might seem to be an advantage. However, having experimented and diversified, many people fire materials, or combinations of materials, at different temperatures and for different times than are recommended.

Some of its features are:

List Skip Segment skips past a segment during Ramp-Hold firing.
List Hold maintains the temperature for a set time.
List Program Review lets you check that the program you are about to fire is correct.
List Temperature Display throughout firing and cooling can be set to °F or °C.
List Error Messages report problems such as a disconnected thermocouple, stuck relay, or broken element.
List Delay starts a count-down timer which sets a delayed start time.
List It stores four sequences.
List Three LEDs show whether you are in programme, review, or firing mode.
List The programmer beeps when the set firing sequence comes to an end.

Your kiln will come with a comprehensive instruction manual. Drying and firing Art Clay is consistently easy whereas when working with glass you'll probably need to experiment.

SENTRY XPRESS 3-KEY DIGITAL CONTROLLER: CONE-FIRE OR RAMP-HOLD
The Paragon-Orton Sentry Xpress 3-Key Programmer

The Sentry Xpress.

Generally, this programmer is used on high-temperature kilns, such as the Caldera and Xpress. You can set up your own sequences using up to eight segments. There are two firing modes:

Ramp-Hold, generally used for Art Clay, glass fusing, and glass slumping, allows you to customize the firing using multiple times and temperatures in eight different segments.
Ramp-Hold also allows you to programme slow cooling: useful, for example, for controlling the colours of ceramic glazes. However, plainly, the kiln cannot cool any quicker than it would do if the power was turned off.

Cone-Fire, generally used for ceramics, pottery, stoneware, glazes, china painting, and decals, fires to a set pyrometric cone number listed in the Orton cone tables. It's not designed for Art Clay, heat treating, glass work, and enameling.
Cone-Fire will only be successful if you understand how cones and cone numbers work. Unlike a programmer, a cone is a visual indicator that your work has been fired for the correct combination of kiln temperature, kiln atmosphere, and time.

Some of its features are:

List Skip Segment skips past a segment during Ramp-Hold firing.
List Hold maintains the temperature for a set time.
List Program Review lets you check that the program you are about to fire is correct.
List Temperature Display throughout firing and cooling can be set to °F or °C.
List Error Messages report problems such as a disconnected thermocouple, stuck relay, or broken element.
List Delay starts a count-down timer which sets a delayed start time.
List It stores four sequences.
List Three LEDs show whether you are in programme, review, or firing mode.
List The programmer beeps when the set firing sequence comes to an end.

Your kiln will come with a comprehensive instruction manual. Drying and firing Art Clay is consistently easy whereas, working with glass, you'll probably need to experiment.

SENTRY XPRESS 12-KEY DIGITAL CONTROLLER

The Sentry Cone-Fire And Ramp-Hold Programmers.

The Paragon-Orton Sentry 12-Key Programmer

Generally, this programmer is used on the larger kilns where it's extra features are important. There are two configurations: ramp-hold and cone-fire ramp-hold.

Ramp-Hold, generally used for enamelling, glass work and metal clays allows you to customize the firing using multiple times and temperatures in up to twenty different segments.
Ramp-Hold also allows you to programme slow cooling: useful, for example, for controlling the colours of ceramic glazes. However, plainly, the kiln cannot cool any quicker than it would do if the power was turned off.

Cone-Fire, generally used for ceramics, pottery, stoneware, glazes, china painting, and decals, fires to a set pyrometric cone number listed in the Orton cone tables.
Cone-Fire will only be successful if you understand how cones and cone numbers work. Unlike a programmer, a cone is a visual indicator that your work has been fired for the correct combination of kiln temperature, kiln atmosphere, and time. To learn more about cone numbers and cone-firing, go to cone-fire using the link below the menu bar.

Some of its features are:

List Nine ramp-hold programmes, one with twenty segments, the others with ten.
List Stop/Back goes back one step at a time to correct programming errors.
List Add Time adds five minutes to a hold.
List Delay starts a count-down timer which sets a delayed start time.
List Present Status shows the segment that is currently running.
List Program Review lets you check that the programme you are about to fire is correct.
List Temperature Display throughout firing and cooling can be set to °F or °C.
List Options to set up aspects of the sequence.
List Error Messages report problems such as a disconnected thermocouple, stuck relay, or broken element.
List Three LEDs show whether you are in programme, review, or firing mode.
List The programmer beeps when the set firing sequence comes to an end.
List It connects to a computer via an RS232 interface to monitor the sequence and produce grahical data.
List It can control a kiln vent.
List It can control a gas flow meter.

Your kiln will come with a comprehensive instruction manual. Drying and firing Art Clay is consistently easy whereas, working with ceramics, you'll probably need to experiment.

SENTINEL SMART TOUCH DIGITAL CONTROLLER

The Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer.

The Paragon-Bartlett Sentinel Touch Screen Programmer

The Sentinel is a direct replacement for the Sentry 2.0 12-key. It fits in the same space and uses the same wiring harness, so it takes just a few minutes to change.

Generally, this programmer is used on the larger kilns where it's extra features are important. There are two configurations: ramp-hold and cone-fire ramp-hold.

Ramp-Hold, generally used for enamelling, glass work and metal clays allows you to customize the firing using multiple times and temperatures in up to twenty different segments.
Ramp-Hold also allows you to programme slow cooling: useful, for example, for controlling the colours of ceramic glazes. However, plainly, the kiln cannot cool any quicker than it would do if the power was turned off.

Cone-Fire, generally used for ceramics, pottery, stoneware, glazes, china painting, and decals, fires to a set pyrometric cone number listed in the Orton cone tables.
Cone-Fire will only be successful if you understand how cones and cone numbers work. Unlike a programmer, a cone is a visual indicator that your work has been fired for the correct combination of kiln temperature, kiln atmosphere, and time. To learn more about cone numbers and cone-firing, go to cone-fire using the link below the menu bar.

Some of its features are:

List Easy-clean touch screen.
List Wi-Fi enabled for updates.
List Continuous display of the voltage, in case there are any issues during firing.
List Continuous display of the current, in case the elements are wearing.
List Novice Mode with on-screen prompts.
List Twelve ramp-hold programmes, each one with thirty two segments.
List Skip Step will delete the current segment.
List Add Segments adds extra segment to the whole programme.
List Add Temperature increases the temperature of the current segment
List Add Time adds time to a hold.
List Delay starts a count-down timer which sets a delayed start time.
List Present Status shows the segment that is currently running.
List Program Review lets you check that the programme you are about to fire is correct.
List Temperature Display throughout firing and cooling can be set to °F or °C.
List Options to set up aspects of the sequence.
List Error Messages report problems such as a disconnected thermocouple, stuck relay, or broken element.
List The programmer beeps when the set firing sequence comes to an end.
List It can control a kiln vent.
List It can control a gas flow meter.

Your kiln will come with a comprehensive instruction manual. Drying and firing Art Clay is consistently easy whereas, working with ceramics, you'll probably need to experiment.

UNDERSTANDING GLASS FUSING
Fused Glass

Glass Fusing.

If you've worked with with Art Clay, PMC, enamels, or glass, you'll probably know how a ramp-hold programmer works but, if you want to fuse properly, it'll help if you understand a multipart sequence. Here's a typical full fuse programme for pieces up to about 500mm square.

Segment 1. Ramp at 222°C per hour to 677°C and hold for 30 minutes

Segment 2. Ramp at 333°C per hour to 804°C and hold for 10 minutesb

Segment 3. Ramp at 999°C per hour to 482°C and hold for 60 minutes

Segment 4. Ramp at 083°C per hour to 371°C and let it cool naturally

This is only a suggestion, so you'll need to buy a book, go to classes, experiment, or research on line. Generally, if you get cracks or bubbles, slow down the ramp rate.

UNDERSTANDING CONE-FIRE

Cone Fire.

Orton Pyrometric Cones

If you've worked with with Art Clay, PMC, enamels, or glass, you'll probably know how a ramp-hold programmer works but, if you want to work with ceramics, it'll help if you understand pyrometric cones. Although you don't have to use pre-set cone programmes: if you prefer, just set your own.

Pyrometric cones are slender pyramids, made from about 100 carefully controlled compositions, that measure the effect of time and temperature. As the cone nears its maturing range, it softens and the tip begins to bend down under it's own weight. Ceramics are usually sold with firing instructions, which include the cone number.

Cone-Fire, generally used for ceramics, pottery, stoneware, glazes, china painting, and decals, fires to a set pyrometric cone number listed in the Orton cone tables. It isn't used for Art Clay, heat treating, glass work, and enameling.
Cone-Fire will only be successful if you understand how cones and cone numbers work. Unlike a programmer, a cone is a visual indicator that your work has been fired for the correct combination of kiln temperature, kiln atmosphere, and time.


If you bought a ceramics kiln with a cone-fire programmer, you can fire using cones because the programmer is set up to use cone numbers. If you have a ramp-hold programmer, you'll need to be able to convert cone numbers to temperature and time. Of course, you can't use a cone that matures at a higher temperature than your kiln can maintain.

Cone numbers were originally set from 1 to 10, 1 being the coolest but cooler cones were then introduced from 022 to 01. To fire faster or slower than the segments listed, change the rates by 10 - 20%. However, the last segment should always be 108. The list below starts with the coolest, and is in degrees Fahrenheit.


Cone 022
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 0979
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1087

Cone 021
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1004
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1112

Cone 020
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1051
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1159

Cone 019
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1144
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1252

Cone 018
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1211
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1319

Cone 017
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1252
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1360

Cone 016
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1314
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1422

Cone 015
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1348
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1456

Cone 014
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1377
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1485

Cone 013
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1431
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1539

Cone 012
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1474
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1582

Cone 011
Segment 1   Rate: 396   Temperature: 1499
Segment 2   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1607

Cone 010
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1549
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1657

Cone 09
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1580
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1688

Cone 08
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1620
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1728

Cone 07
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1681
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1789

Cone 06
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1720
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1828

Cone 05
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1780
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1888

Cone 04
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1837
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1945

Cone 03
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1879
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 1987

Cone 02
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1908
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2016

Cone 01
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 180   Temperature: 1938
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2046

Cone 1        
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 1863
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2079

Cone 2
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 1872
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2088

Cone 3
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 1890
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2106

Cone 4
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 1908
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2124

Cone 5
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 1951
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2167

Cone 6
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 2016
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2232

Cone 7
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 2046
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2262

Cone 8
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 2064
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2280

Cone 9
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 2084
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2300

Cone 10
Segment 1   Rate: 324   Temperature: 1022
Segment 2   Rate: 153   Temperature: 1112
Segment 3   Rate: 162   Temperature: 2129
Segment 4   Rate: 108   Temperature: 2345


As with so many things, there isn't a set of definitive rules about how to fire materials. Although you can be guided by friends, teachers, books, and the internet, part of the enjoyment and satisfaction comes from experiment.


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