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replacing an sc2 muffle or tumblers at   

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Paragon SC2 and SC3 Muffle.

How To Replace A Muffle On A Paragon SC2 or SC3 Kiln.

The elements are embedded in a ceramic fibre box, called a muffle. Older SC2 and SC3 kilns had elements in the back and both sides but this was changed to both sides as the heat distribution was better.

The muffle has two elements, one on each side. Looking at the back, the power is connected to the bottom-left element tail, passes through the left-hand element and reappears at the top-left element tail. This is connected, by a separate external wire, to the top-right element tail. The power passes through the right-hand element and the power is connected to the bottom-right element tail. If one element fails, there's a break in the circuit so the whole muffle cannot work.

If you have a multimeter, you can check the resistance of the elements. Make sure the kiln is unplugged. For an SC2 the resistance will be about 33 ohms. If there's no reading, the element will have failed.

In the factory, screws are put in tightly with an electric screwdriver. When removing them, use the correct-size screwdriver. As with any screw, the wrong size screwdriver can damage the head, making it difficult to remove. The muffle comes with a US-size socket screwdriver.

The muffle has to be aligned so that the door closes without binding. Put in one top screw, and check the alignment. Put in one bottom screw, and check the alignment. If everything is OK, put in the remaining screws.

The Mains Tester Screwdriver

How to Use A Mains Testing Screwdriver.

Mains voltage is AC, The mains tester screwdriver detects the mains, and allows you to follow it though the cables, the transformer, the relay, and the elements.

The mains tester screwdriver contains a current-limiting resistor and a small neon bulb. When the screwdriver tip touches AC mains and you touch the screwdriver's end cap, a tiny current earths through your body and the bulb lights.

It's rated for 220V-250V, has a 60mm blade, and a pocket clip. It's also just right for wiring plugs, fitting sockets, connecting lights, and wiring dimmers. The blade is particularly hard and durable.

A Digital Multimeter.

How To Use A Digital Multimeter.

A multimeter allows you to make electrical measurements such as DC voltage, AC voltage, DC current, AC current, and resistance. To work on kilns, you don't need an elaborate multimeter.

It's important to understand what it is that you'll be measuring:

There are three commonly-used electrical measurements: Volts, for example 230V, is the pushing force. Amps, for example 10A, is the amount being pushed. And Watts, for example 75W, is the power. They're related by the simple formula Watts = Volts x Amps, usually written as W = VI.

Although EU voltage is nominally defined as 230V, UK mains voltage has a reliable average of around 240, which is used in calculations. For example: A regular UK 240 Volt 13 Amp mains socket can deliver 240 x 13 Watts, or 3120 Watts, usually called 3.12kW. It's interesting that a 10W radio will fill the room, a 100W lamp will light the room, and a 1000W heater will warm the room.

So, as we pay for electricity by the kilowatt, it's heating devices that cost the most to run. Which is why you get a big bill if you leave the heater on.
Riding an exercise bike casually only generates about 60W so, although it keeps you warm, you won't become energy-independent. Especially as most of a light bulb's energy is heat rather than light.

DC current, or direct current, flows in one direction so, with some small devices, such as a bedside alarm clock, the battery has to be the right way round. There are usually marks to show you which is positive and which is negative.

AC current, or alternating current, changes direction: 50 times a second in the UK. AC devices, such as your dish washer, usually have three wires: live, neutral, and earth. The way these function isn't quite as simple as it might seem, but briefly:

The live wire is connected directly to the generators of the electricity supply company. NEVER touch this wire, it carries 230-240 Volts and can kill you. The neutral wire returns the electricity to the generator after it has passed through your appliance, completing the circuit. The neutral wire is at approximately zero volts but to be safe you must NEVER touch this wire either. If the wiring is faulty it may be carrying the same electricity as the live wire. The earth wire is a safety measure and, usually, carries no electricity. However, if something in the appliance goes wrong, or it is wired incorrectly, then the earth wire may also be carrying the same electricity as the live wire. So, to be completely safe, NEVER touch this wire either.

Most multimeters are broadly the same: you set the range using a central dial. To measure voltage, such as the voltage across a heating element, the kiln has to be on. To measure resistance, such as the resistance of an heating element, the kiln should be off. The most important thing is not to let the leads touch anything other than the contact points you're testing.

It's ideal for servicing or repairing your kiln. You can check the mains voltage, the plug fuse, the kiln fuse, the transformer, the relay, and the elements. And you can test batteries, bulbs, cables, christmas lights, doorbells, fuses, power adapters, relays, switches, and wires, as well check most domestic electrical equipment.

They all come with instructions but, if you're not familiar with a multimeter, you can practise by checking the DC voltage of a torch battery, the resistance of a normal 13A fuse, and the resistance of a torch or mains bulb.

Some multimeters can check diodes and transistors, measure temperature, measure frequency, and hold the displayed result after you've taken the leads off.

You can buy one in the on-line shop. However, the photo is of a typical multimeter and the ones in stock may not look quite the same.

No one knows how long a device with its battery has been in warehouses or shops. Although they usually come with an economy battery, it might not last long or, worse still, it might be almost flat. Buy a spare straight away. And remember to turn the meter off after use.

Paragon Kilns, Furnaces, and Ovens For Annealing, Beads, Ceramics, Enamels, Glass, Jewellery, Knife Making, Lost Wax, Silver Clays, Heat Treating, Lampwork, Porcelain, And Vitrigraph.

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UK To EU Plug Adapter.
Ceramic Block.
Ceramic Cloth.
EU Plug.
UK-EU Adapter.
Dry Powder Extinguisher.
Glare Resistant Glasses.
HEPA Mask.
heat-resistant Gloves.
Kitiki Cutters.
Kitiki Flush Cutters.
Kitiki Flat-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Pointed-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Bent-Nose Pliers.
Kitiki Round-Nose Pliers.
Protective Glasses.
Potter & Brumfield Relay.
Dorset, SW England.
UK 13A Plug.
Large Rubber Drum 950gm Open
The AX-4 Digital Controller.
MiniKiln Closed.
Bartlett-Paragon Touch Screen Digital Controller.
Paragon BlueBird Bead Annealing Kiln.
Lauscha by Carrie Fertig.
Activated Charcoal Granules.
Paragon Caldera Ceramics And Glass Kiln.
Paragon Caldera Bead, Enamels, And Glass Kiln.
Paragon Crucible.
Paragon Fusion CS14D Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion CS14SB Glass And Bead Kiln.
Paragon Caldera XL Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon F500 Lampwork Kiln.
Paragon FireFly Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 7 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Fusion 8 Glass Kiln.
Paragon GL18ADTSD Glass Kiln.
Paragon HT-14D Heat Treating Furnace.
Paragon Janus 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon KM18D Knife-Making Oven.
Paragon KM36 XL PRP Knife-Making Furnace.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Unassembled.
Paragon-Orton Vent Master: Suction Cup.
Paragon Pearl 22 Glass Kiln.
Paragon PMT21 Heat Treating Kiln.
Paragon Door Peephole And Vent.
Stainless Steel Pans.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2B Bead-Door Kiln.
Paragon SC2W Enamelling Kiln.
Paragon SC4 Glass Kiln.
Paragon SC2BW Jewellery And Bead Kiln.
Paragon SC2D Pro-3 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC2 Shelf Kit.
Paragon SC-2 Jade Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Black Jewellery Kiln.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Xpress Programmer.
Orton-Paragon Sentry Programmer.
Bartlett-Paragon Sentinel Touch-Screen Controller.
Paragon SC-2 Pink Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Pro Black Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Turqoise Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Purple Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Navy Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon SC-2 Berry Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon ST-8 Kiln Table.
Paragon Kiln Table With Casters.
Paragon TNF 1613 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon GL24 Kiln Table.
Paragon Xpress 1613 Top Row Of Bricks.
Paragon W Lost-Wax Casting Kiln.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray With Grille.
Paragon Lost-Wax Burnout Tray With Grid.
USB Plug.
Paragon Xpress E-12 Jewellery Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-12B Bead Kiln.
Paragon Xpress E-14 Glass Kiln.
Paragon Xpress Q-11 Ceramics Kiln.
Paragon Vitrigraph Kiln.
Prometheus Pro-7.